Results for 'Douglas Atkinson'

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  1.  9
    In Memoriam Douglas N. Walton: The Influence of Doug Walton on AI and Law.Katie Atkinson, Trevor Bench-Capon, Floris Bex, Thomas F. Gordon, Henry Prakken, Giovanni Sartor & Bart Verheij - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 28 (3):281-326.
    Doug Walton, who died in January 2020, was a prolific author whose work in informal logic and argumentation had a profound influence on Artificial Intelligence, including Artificial Intelligence and Law. He was also very interested in interdisciplinary work, and a frequent and generous collaborator. In this paper seven leading researchers in AI and Law, all past programme chairs of the International Conference on AI and Law who have worked with him, describe his influence on their work.
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  2.  32
    Distinctive Features of Persuasion and Deliberation Dialogues.Katie Atkinson, Trevor Bench-Capon & Douglas Walton - 2013 - Argument and Computation 4 (2):105-127.
  3.  92
    A History of AI and Law in 50 Papers: 25 Years of the International Conference on AI and Law. [REVIEW]Trevor Bench-Capon, Michał Araszkiewicz, Kevin Ashley, Katie Atkinson, Floris Bex, Filipe Borges, Daniele Bourcier, Paul Bourgine, Jack G. Conrad, Enrico Francesconi, Thomas F. Gordon, Guido Governatori, Jochen L. Leidner, David D. Lewis, Ronald P. Loui, L. Thorne McCarty, Henry Prakken, Frank Schilder, Erich Schweighofer, Paul Thompson, Alex Tyrrell, Bart Verheij, Douglas N. Walton & Adam Z. Wyner - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (3):215-319.
    We provide a retrospective of 25 years of the International Conference on AI and Law, which was first held in 1987. Fifty papers have been selected from the thirteen conferences and each of them is described in a short subsection individually written by one of the 24 authors. These subsections attempt to place the paper discussed in the context of the development of AI and Law, while often offering some personal reactions and reflections. As a whole, the subsections build into (...)
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  4.  69
    The Moral Difference or Equivalence Between Continuous Sedation Until Death and Physician-Assisted Death: Word Games or War Games?: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Opinion Pieces in the Indexed Medical and Nursing Literature. [REVIEW]Sam Rys, Reginald Deschepper, Freddy Mortier, Luc Deliens, Douglas Atkinson & Johan Bilsen - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):171-183.
    Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical–ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. Some argue that CSD is morally equivalent to physician-assisted death (PAD), that it is a form of “slow euthanasia.” A qualitative thematic content analysis of opinion pieces was conducted to describe and classify arguments that support or reject a moral difference between CSD and PAD. Arguments pro and (...)
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  5.  24
    The Roles of User/Producer Hybrids in the Production of Translational Science.Conor M. W. Douglas, Bryn Lander, Cory Fairley & Janet Atkinson-Grosjean - 2015 - Social Epistemology 29 (3):323-343.
    This paper explores the interface between users and producers of translational science through three case studies. It argues that effective TS requires a breakdown between user and producer roles: users become producers and producers become users. In making this claim, we challenge conventional understandings of TS as well as linear models of innovation. Policy-makers and funders increasingly expect TS and its associated socioeconomic benefits to occur when funding scientific research. We argue that a better understanding of the hybridity between users (...)
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  6.  6
    Cultural Differentiation Does Not Entail Group-Level Structure: The Case for Geographically Explicit Analysis.Robert Malcolm Ross & Quentin Douglas Atkinson - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
    Richerson et al. argue that relatively large culturalFSTvalues provide evidence for group structure and therefore scope for group selection. However, recent research on spatial patterns of cultural variation demonstrates that, as in the genetic case, apparent group structure can be a consequence of geographic clines, not group barriers. Such a pattern limits the scope for cultural group selection.
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  7. Digital Approaches to Music-Making for People With Dementia in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Current Practice and Recommendations.Becky Dowson, Rebecca Atkinson, Julie Barnes, Clare Barone, Nick Cutts, Eleanor Donnebaum, Ming Hung Hsu, Irene Lo Coco, Gareth John, Grace Meadows, Angela O'Neill, Douglas Noble, Gabrielle Norman, Farai Pfende, Paul Quinn, Angela Warren, Catherine Watkins & Justine Schneider - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Before COVID-19, dementia singing groups and choirs flourished, providing activity, cognitive stimulation, and social support for thousands of people with dementia in the UK. Interactive music provides one of the most effective psychosocial interventions for people with dementia; it can allay agitation and promote wellbeing. Since COVID-19 has halted the delivery of in-person musical activities, it is important for the welfare of people with dementia and their carers to investigate what alternatives to live music making exist, how these alternatives are (...)
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  8.  10
    American Sociology, Realism, Structure and Truth: An Interview with Douglas V. Porpora.Douglas V. Porpora & Jamie Morgan - 2020 - Journal of Critical Realism 19 (5):522-544.
    ABSTRACT In this wide-ranging interview Professor Douglas V. Porpora discusses a number of issues. First, how he became a Critical Realist through his early work on the concept of structure. Second, drawing on his Reconstructing Sociology, his take on the current state of American sociology. This leads to discussion of the broader range of his work as part of Margaret Archer’s various Centre for Social Ontology projects, and on moral-macro reasoning and the concept of truth in political discourse.
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  9. Four Concepts of Social Structure Douglas V. Porpora.Douglas V. Porpora - 1989 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 19 (2):195–211.
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  10. Human Flourishing and the Appeal to Human Nature*: DOUGLAS B. RASMUSSEN.Douglas B. Rasmussen - 1999 - Social Philosophy and Policy 16 (1):1-43.
    If “perfectionism” in ethics refers to those normative theories that treat the fulfillment or realization of human nature as central to an account of both goodness and moral obligation, in what sense is “human flourishing” a perfectionist notion? How much of what we take “human flourishing” to signify is the result of our understanding of human nature? Is the content of this concept simply read off an examination of our nature? Is there no place for diversity and individuality? Is the (...)
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  11. Rule-Consequentialism and Irrelevant Others: Douglas W. Portmore.Douglas W. Portmore - 2009 - Utilitas 21 (3):368-376.
    In this article, I argue that Brad Hooker's rule-consequentialism implausibly implies that what earthlings are morally required to sacrifice for the sake of helping their less fortunate brethren depends on whether or not other people exist on some distant planet even when these others would be too far away for earthlings to affect.
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  12.  21
    Karl Popper and Economic Methodology: A New Look: Douglas W. Hands.Douglas W. Hands - 1985 - Economics and Philosophy 1 (1):83-99.
    Discussions of Karl Popper's falsificationist philosophy of science appear regularly in the recent literature on economic methodology. In this literature, there seem to be two fundamental points of agreement about Popper. First, most economists take Popper's falsificationist method of bold conjecture and severe test to be the correct characterization of scientific conduct in the physical sciences. Second, most economists admit that economic theory fails miserably when judged by these same falsificationist standards. As Latsis states, “the development of economic analysis would (...)
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  13.  26
    Review Symposium : Douglas W. Hands G. C. Archibald Joseph Agassi on S. J. Latsis, Ed. Method and Appraisal in Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976. Pp. VIII + 218. $17.50 the Methodology of Economic Research Programmes. [REVIEW]Douglas W. Hands - 1979 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 9 (3):293-303.
  14.  34
    Folkbiology.Douglas L. Medin & Scott Atran (eds.) - 1999 - MIT Press.
    This book takes an interdisciplinary approach, bringing together the work of researchers in anthropology, cognitive and developmental psychology, biology, and ...
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  15. Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal.Heather Douglas - 2009 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Douglas proposes a new ideal in which values serve an essential function throughout scientific inquiry, but where the role values play is constrained at key points, protecting the integrity and objectivity of science.
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  16. Legal Argumentation and Evidence.Douglas Walton - 2002 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    A leading expert in informal logic, Douglas Walton turns his attention in this new book to how reasoning operates in trials and other legal contexts, with special emphasis on the law of evidence. The new model he develops, drawing on methods of argumentation theory that are gaining wide acceptance in computing fields like artificial intelligence, can be used to identify, analyze, and evaluate specific types of legal argument. In contrast with approaches that rely on deductive and inductive logic and (...)
     
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  17. Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority.Douglas Walton - 1997 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    A new pragmatic approach, based on the latest developments in argumentation theory, analyzing appeal to expert opinion as a form of argument. Reliance on authority has always been a common recourse in argumentation, perhaps never more so than today in our highly technological society when knowledge has become so specialized—as manifested, for instance, in the frequent appearance of "expert witnesses" in courtrooms. When is an appeal to the opinion of an expert a reasonable type of argument to make, and when (...)
     
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  18.  87
    Creativity and the Philosophy of C.S. Peirce.Douglas R. Anderson - 1987 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Chapter INTRODUCTION Charles Sanders Peirce is quickly becoming the dominant figure in the history of American philosophy. The breadth and depth of his work ...
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  19.  38
    Douglas Cock Replies.Douglas J. Cock - 1992 - The Chesterton Review 18 (1):149-150.
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  20.  19
    The Sequential Principle of Relative Culpability: Douglas N. Husak.Douglas N. Husak - 1995 - Legal Theory 1 (4):493-518.
    A rational defense of the criminal law must provide a comprehensive theory of culpability. A comprehensive theory of culpability must resolve several difficult issues; in this article I will focus on only one. The general problem arises from the lack of a systematic account of relative culpability. An account of relative culpability would identify and defend a set of considerations to assess whether, why, under what circumstances, and to what extent persons who perform a criminal act with a given culpable (...)
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  21.  91
    Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid.Douglas R. Hofstadter - 1979 - Basic Books.
    A young scientist and mathematician explores the mystery and complexity of human thought processes from an interdisciplinary point of view.
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  22. Standard of Care, Institutional Obligations, and Distributive Justice.Douglas MacKay - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (4):352-359.
    The problem of standard of care in clinical research concerns the level of treatment that investigators must provide to subjects in clinical trials. Commentators often formulate answers to this problem by appealing to two distinct types of obligations: professional obligations and natural duties. In this article, I investigate whether investigators also possess institutional obligations that are directly relevant to the problem of standard of care, that is, those obligations a person has because she occupies a particular institutional role. I examine (...)
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  23.  40
    Philosophy Americana: Making Philosophy at Home in American Culture.Douglas R. Anderson - 2006 - Fordham University Press.
    In this engaging book, Douglas Anderson begins with the assumption that philosophy—the Greek love of wisdom—is alive and well in American culture. At the same time, professional philosophy remains relatively invisible. Anderson traverses American life to find places in the wider culture where professional philosophy in the distinctively American tradition can strike up a conversation. How might American philosophers talk to us about our religious experience, or political engagement, or literature—or even, popular music? Anderson’s second aim is to find (...)
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  24.  24
    Ethical Argumentation.Douglas Walton - 2003 - Lexington Books.
    Bridging the gap between applied ethics and ethical theory, Ethical Argumentation draws on recent research in argumentation theory to develop a more realistic model of how ethical justification actually works.
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  25. Commonsense Consequentialism: Wherein Morality Meets Rationality.Douglas W. Portmore - 2011 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press USA.
    Commonsense Consequentialism is a book about morality, rationality, and the interconnections between the two. In it, Douglas W. Portmore defends a version of consequentialism that both comports with our commonsense moral intuitions and shares with other consequentialist theories the same compelling teleological conception of practical reasons. Broadly construed, consequentialism is the view that an act's deontic status is determined by how its outcome ranks relative to those of the available alternatives on some evaluative ranking. Portmore argues that outcomes should (...)
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  26.  46
    Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence: DOUGLAS P. LACKEY.Douglas P. Lackey - 1985 - Social Philosophy and Policy 3 (1):154-175.
    I. Beyond Utilitarianism In the summer of 1982, I published an article called “Missiles and Morals,” in which I argued on utilitarian grounds that nuclear deterrence in its present form is not morally justifiable. The argument of “Missiles and Morals” compared the most likely sort of nuclear war to develop under nuclear deterrence with the most likely sort of nuclear war to develop under American unilateral nuclear disaramament. For a variety of reasons, I claimed diat the number of casualties in (...)
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  27.  2
    The New Dialectic.Douglas Walton - 1999 - ProtoSociology 13:70-91.
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  28.  21
    A New Disproof of the Compatibility of Foreknowledge and Free Choice: DOUGLAS P. LACKEY.Douglas P. Lackey - 1974 - Religious Studies 10 (3):313-318.
    Old philosophical problems never die, but they can be reinterpreted. In this paper, I offer a reinterpretation of the problem of reconciling divine omniscience and human free will. Classical discussions of this problem concentrate on the nature of God and the concept of free will. The present discussion will focus attention on the concept of knowledge, drawing on developments in epistemology that resulted from the posing of a certain problem by Edmund Gettier in 1963.
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  29. Weighing Aims in Doxastic Deliberation.C. J. Atkinson - 2019 - Synthese (5):4635-4650.
    In this paper, I defend teleological theories of belief against the exclusivity objection. I argue that despite the exclusive influence of truth in doxastic deliberation, multiple epistemic aims interact when we consider what to believe. This is apparent when we focus on the processes involved in specific instances (or concrete cases) of doxastic deliberation, such that the propositions under consideration are specified. First, I out- line a general schema for weighing aims. Second, I discuss recent attempts to defend the teleological (...)
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  30.  96
    Computational Representation of Practical Argument.Katie Atkinson, Trevor Bench-Capon & Peter McBurney - 2006 - Synthese 152 (2):157-206.
    In this paper we consider persuasion in the context of practical reasoning, and discuss the problems associated with construing reasoning about actions in a manner similar to reasoning about beliefs. We propose a perspective on practical reasoning as presumptive justification of a course of action, along with critical questions of this justification, building on the account of Walton. From this perspective, we articulate an interaction protocol, which we call PARMA, for dialogues over proposed actions based on this theory. We outline (...)
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  31. Argumentation Schemes.Douglas Walton, Chris Reed & Fabrizio Macagno - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides a systematic analysis of many common argumentation schemes and a compendium of 96 schemes. The study of these schemes, or forms of argument that capture stereotypical patterns of human reasoning, is at the core of argumentation research. Surveying all aspects of argumentation schemes from the ground up, the book takes the reader from the elementary exposition in the first chapter to the latest state of the art in the research efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, outlined (...)
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  32. The Aim of Belief and Suspended Belief.C. J. Atkinson - 2021 - Philosophical Psychology 34 (4):581-606.
    In this paper, I discuss whether different interpretations of the ‘aim’ of belief—both the teleological and normative interpretations—have the resources to explain certain descriptive and normative features of suspended belief (suspension). I argue that, despite the recent efforts of theorists to extend these theories to account for suspension, they ultimately fail. The implication is that we must either develop alternative theories of belief that can account for suspension, or we must abandon the assumption that these theories ought to be able (...)
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  33.  3
    Conscience and Other Virtues: From Bonaventure to Macintyre.Douglas C. Langston - 2000 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    In this book Douglas Langston traces its intellectual history to account for its neglect while arguing for its still vital importance, if correctly understood.
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  34.  94
    Fundamentals of Critical Argumentation.Douglas Walton - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    Fundamentals of Critical Argumentation presents the basic tools for the identification, analysis, and evaluation of common arguments for beginners. The book teaches by using examples of arguments in dialogues, both in the text itself and in the exercises. Examples of controversial legal, political, and ethical arguments are analyzed. Illustrating the most common kinds of arguments, the book also explains how to evaluate each kind by critical questioning. Douglas Walton shows how arguments can be reasonable under the right dialogue conditions (...)
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  35.  88
    Tropes: Properties, Objects, and Mental Causation.Douglas Ehring - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Properties and objects are everywhere, but remain a philosophical mystery. Douglas Ehring argues that the idea of tropes--properties and relations understood as particulars--provides the best foundation for a metaphysical account of properties and objects. He develops and defends a new theory of trope nominalism.
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  36. By Douglas Kellner (Http://Www.Gseis.Ucla.Edu/Faculty/Kellner/).Douglas Kellner - unknown
    During the Gulf war, CNN correspondent Peter Arnett distinguished himself with its courageous reporting in Iraq while under fire by the U.S.-led coalition which dropped more bombs on Iraq than were unleashed in World War II. Reporting live from Baghdad throughout the war, Arnett provided vivid daily accounts of life in Iraq during one of the most sustained air attacks in history. From his live telephone reporting of the early hours of the U.S. attack on Iraq in January 1991 through (...)
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  37.  4
    Position and Change: A Study in Law and Logic.R. F. Atkinson - 1979 - Philosophical Quarterly 29 (115):183-185.
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  38.  47
    Knowledge and Explanation in History: An Introduction to the Philosophy of History.R. F. Atkinson - 1978 - Cornell University Press.
  39.  91
    Argumentation Schemes for Presumptive Reasoning.Douglas N. Walton - 1996 - L. Erlbaum Associates.
    This book identifies 25 argumentation schemes for presumptive reasoning and matches a set of critical questions to each.
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  40.  83
    Legal Case-Based Reasoning as Practical Reasoning.Katie Atkinson & Trevor Bench-Capon - 2005 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (1):93-131.
    In this paper we apply a general account of practical reasoning to arguing about legal cases. In particular, we provide a reconstruction of the reasoning of the majority and dissenting opinions for a particular well-known case from property law. This is done through the use of Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) agents to replicate the contrasting views involved in the actual decision. This reconstruction suggests that the reasoning involved can be separated into three distinct levels: factual and normative levels and a level connecting (...)
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  41.  9
    Douglas Bush's Science and English PoetryScience and English Poetry: A Historical Sketch, 1590-1950.Samuel I. Mintz & Douglas Bush - 1951 - Journal of the History of Ideas 12 (1):155.
  42.  6
    The Foundation and Construction of Ethics.R. F. Atkinson - 1975 - Philosophical Quarterly 25 (99):169-170.
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  43.  58
    How to Make and Defend a Proposal in a Deliberation Dialogue.Douglas Walton - 2006 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 14 (3):177-239.
    In this paper it is shown how tools developed in argumentation theory and artificial intelligence can be applied to the development of a new dialectical analysis of the speech act of making a proposal in a deliberation dialogue. These tools are developed, modified and used to formulate dialogue pre-conditions, defining conditions and post-conditions for the speech act of making a proposal in a deliberation dialogue. The defining conditions set out what is required for a move in a dialogue to count (...)
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  44. Ethical Consistency.B. A. O. Williams & W. F. Atkinson - 1965 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 39 (1):103-138.
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  45. Dual-Ranking Act-Consequentialism.Douglas W. Portmore - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 138 (3):409 - 427.
    Dual-ranking act-consequentialism (DRAC) is a rather peculiar version of act-consequentialism. Unlike more traditional forms of act-consequentialism, DRAC doesn’t take the deontic status of an action to be a function of some evaluative ranking of outcomes. Rather, it takes the deontic status of an action to be a function of some non-evaluative ranking that is in turn a function of two auxiliary rankings that are evaluative. I argue that DRAC is promising in that it can accommodate certain features of commonsense morality (...)
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  46.  53
    A Dialogical Theory of Presumption.Douglas Walton - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (2):209-243.
    The notions of burden of proof and presumption are central to law, but as noted in McCormick on Evidence, they are also the slipperiest of any of the family of legal terms employed in legal reasoning. However, recent studies of burden of proof and presumption (Prakken et al. 2005; Prakken and Sartor 2006). Gordon et al. (2007) offer formal models that can render them into precise tools useful for legal reasoning. In this paper, the various theories and formal models are (...)
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  47.  54
    The Carneades Model of Argument Invention.Douglas N. Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (1):1-31.
    Argument invention is a method that can be used to help an arguer find arguments that could be used to prove a claim he needs to defend. The aim of this paper is to show how argumentation systems recently developed in artificial intelligence can be applied to the task of argument invention. One such system called Carneades is featured. Carneades can be used to analyze arguments, evaluate arguments, to make an argument diagram, and to construct arguments from a database. Using (...)
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  48. Saggio nello stile di Douglas Hofstadter di EWI.Douglas Hofstadter - 2011 - Discipline Filosofiche 21 (1).
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  49. Informal Logic: A Handbook for Critical Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is an introductory guide to the basic principles of constructing good arguments and criticizing bad ones. It is nontechnical in its approach, and is based on 150 key examples, each discussed and evaluated in clear, illustrative detail. The author explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound argument strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical questions for responding. Among the many subjects covered are: techniques of posing, (...)
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  50.  16
    The Incommensurability of Research Risks and Benefits: Practical Help for Research Ethics Committees.Douglas K. Martin, Eric M. Meslin, Nitsa Kohut & Peter A. Singer - 1995 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 17 (2):8.
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