Results for 'Richard Shafer'

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  1.  11
    Effects of a Business Ethics Elective on Hong Kong Undergraduates’ Attitudes Toward Corporate Ethics and Social Responsibility.Richard Simmons, William Shafer & Robin Snell - 2013 - Business and Society 52 (4):558-591.
    This study examines the effect of a business ethics course on undergraduates’ attitudes toward the importance of corporate ethics and social responsibility, as measured by the PRESOR scale. It employs a survey approach, adopting a pretest/posttest methodology in the data collection. A total of 132 undergraduate students were surveyed over a period of four semesters during 2006 and 2007. To test the effects of individual personality characteristics and examine their potential interaction with ethical education, participants’ personal values and degree of (...)
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  2.  29
    Greasing the Newsgate: Journalist on the Take in the Philippines.Richard Shafer - 1990 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 5 (1):15 – 29.
    Bribery and corruption among Third World journalists is the topic of this article as it reflects on how such practices hinder the type of journalism that might be effective in advancing the development agendas of these countries. In the Philippines, 54 provincial journalists were interviewed about the nature of their work and the social and economic influences that restrain journalism and professionalism there. It was concluded that as long as journalists are poorly paid and as long as they are physically (...)
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  3.  80
    Jeffrey's Rule of Conditioning.Glenn Shafer - 1981 - Philosophy of Science 48 (3):337-362.
    Richard Jeffrey's generalization of Bayes' rule of conditioning follows, within the theory of belief functions, from Dempster's rule of combination and the rule of minimal extension. Both Jeffrey's rule and the theory of belief functions can and should be construed constructively, rather than normatively or descriptively. The theory of belief functions gives a more thorough analysis of how beliefs might be constructed than Jeffrey's rule does. The inadequacy of Bayesian conditioning is much more general than Jeffrey's examples of uncertain (...)
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  4. The Ethical Life: Fundamental Readings in Ethics and Moral Problems.Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    Introduction -- Value theory : the nature of the good life -- Epicurus letter to Menoeceus -- John Stuart Mill, Hedonism -- Aldous Huxley, Brave new world -- Robert Nozick, The experience machine -- Richard Taylor, The meaning of life -- Jean Kazez, Necessities -- Normative ethics : theories of right conduct -- J.J.C. Smart, Eextreme and restricted utilitarianism -- Immanuel Kant the good will & the categorical imperative -- Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan -- Philippa Foot, Natural goodness -- Aristotle, (...)
     
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  5.  32
    A Suitable Measure of Redemption: Poems and Commentaries by Richard Berlin, Judy Schaefer, Audrey Shafer, John Graham-Pole, and John Wright.Jack Coulehan - 2000 - Journal of Medical Humanities 21 (4):189-198.
  6.  7
    How to Define ‘Moral Realism’.Richard Swinburne - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 22 (3):15-33.
    Moral realism is the doctrine that some propositions asserting that some action is ‘morally’ good are true. This paper examines three different definitions of what it is for an action to be ‘morally’ good which would make moral realism a clear and plausible view. The first defines ‘morally good as ‘overall important to do’; and the second defines it as ‘overall important to do for universalizable reasons’. The paper argues that neither of these definitions is adequate; and it develops the (...)
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  7. Reason and Responsibility: Readings in Some Basic Problems of Philosophy.Joel Feinberg - 1965 - Dickenson Pub. Co..
    Joel Feinberg : In Memoriam. Preface. Part I: INTRODUCTION TO THE NATURE AND VALUE OF PHILOSOPHY. 1. Joel Feinberg: A Logic Lesson. 2. Plato: "Apology." 3. Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy. PART II: REASON AND RELIGIOUS BELIEF. 1. The Existence and Nature of God. 1.1 Anselm of Canterbury: The Ontological Argument, from Proslogion. 1.2 Gaunilo of Marmoutiers: On Behalf of the Fool. 1.3 L. Rowe: The Ontological Argument. 1.4 Saint Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways, from Summa Theologica. 1.5 Samuel (...)
     
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  8. Moral Realism: A Defence.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Moral Realism is a systematic defence of the idea that there are objective moral standards. Russ Shafer-Landau argues that there are moral principles that are true independently of what anyone, anywhere, happens to think of them. His central thesis, as well as the many novel supporting arguments used to defend it, will spark much controversy among those concerned with the foundations of ethics.
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  9. A Betting Interpretation for Probabilities and Dempster-Shafer Degrees of Belief.Glenn Shafer - 2010 - International Journal of Approximate Reasoning.
  10. A Mathematical Theory of Evidence.Glenn Shafer - 1976 - Princeton University Press.
  11. Evolutionary Debunking, Moral Realism and Moral Knowledge.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2012 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 7 (1):1-38.
    This paper reconstructs what I take to be the central evolutionary debunking argument that underlies recent critiques of moral realism. The argument claims that given the extent of evolutionary influence on our moral faculties, and assuming the truth of moral realism, it would be a massive coincidence were our moral faculties reliable ones. Given this coincidence, any presumptive warrant enjoyed by our moral beliefs is defeated. So if moral realism is true, then we can have no warranted moral beliefs, and (...)
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  12. The Fundamentals of Ethics.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Introduction -- Part I: The good life -- Hedonism : its powerful appeal -- Is happiness all that matters? -- Getting what you want -- Problems for the desire theory -- Part II: Doing the right thing -- Morality and religion -- Natural law theory -- Psychological egoism -- Ethical egoism -- Consequentialism : its nature and attractions -- Consequentialism : its difficulties -- The kantian perspective : fairness and justice -- The kantian perspective : autonomy and respect -- The (...)
     
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  13.  19
    Machiavellianism, Stakeholder Orientation, and Support for Sustainability Reporting.William E. Shafer & Lorenzo Lucianetti - 2018 - Business Ethics: A European Review 27 (3):272-285.
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  14.  58
    Yes to Realism! No to Non-Naturalism!Ulysses T. Araña - 2009 - Kritike 3 (1):98.
    According to contemporary moral realism a moral property, like goodness or badness, is either a natural property or a non-natural property of actions or situations. Contemporary moral naturalists like Richard Boyd, Nicholas Sturgeon, and David Brink are a group of philosophers who are often referred to as Cornell realists because of their connection with Cornell University. Frank Jackson is another contemporary moral naturalist who is one of the leaders of The Canberra Planners at the Australian National University with which (...)
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  15.  77
    Values and the Perceived Importance of Ethics and Social Responsibility: The U.S. Versus China.William E. Shafer, Kyoko Fukukawa & Grace Meina Lee - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (3):265-284.
    This study examines the effects of nationality (U.S. vs. China) and personal values on managers’ responses to the Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility (PRESOR) scale. Evidence that China’s transition to a socialist market economy has led to widespread business corruption, led us to hypothesize that People’s Republic of China (PRC) managers would believe less strongly in the importance of ethical and socially responsible business conduct. We also hypothesized that after controlling for national differences, managers’ personal values (more specifically, (...)
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  16. Whatever Happened to Good and Evil?Russ Shafer-Landau - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Since September 11, 2001, many people in the United States have been more inclined to use the language of good and evil, and to be more comfortable with the idea that certain moral standards are objective (true independently of what anyone happens to think of them). Some people, especially those who are not religious, are not sure how to substantiate this view. Whatever Happened to Good and Evil? provides a basis for exploring these doubts and ultimately defends the objectivity of (...)
     
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  17. Ethics as Philosophy : A Defense of Ethical Nonnaturalism.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2006 - In Terry Horgan & Mark Timmons (eds.), Metaethics After Moore. Oxford University Press.
     
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  18. The Moral Fixed Points: New Directions for Moral Nonnaturalism.Terence Cuneo & Russ Shafer-Landau - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 171 (3):399-443.
    Our project in this essay is to showcase nonnaturalistic moral realism’s resources for responding to metaphysical and epistemological objections by taking the view in some new directions. The central thesis we will argue for is that there is a battery of substantive moral propositions that are also nonnaturalistic conceptual truths. We call these propositions the moral fixed points. We will argue that they must find a place in any system of moral norms that applies to beings like us, in worlds (...)
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  19. A Defence of Categorical Reasons.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2009 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 109 (1pt2):189-206.
    In this paper I offer two arguments designed to defend the existence of categorical reasons, which I define as those justifying considerations that obtain independently of their relation to an agent's commitments. The first argument is based on certain paradigm cases meant to reveal difficulties for practical instrumentalism—the view, as I define it here, that categorical reasons do not exist, because all reasons must serve the commitments of the agents to whom they apply. The second argument relies on considerations of (...)
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  20.  24
    Ethical Climate, Social Responsibility, and Earnings Management.William E. Shafer - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (1):43-60.
    This study proposes and tests a model of the relations among corporate accountants’ perceptions of the ethical climate in their organization, the perceived importance of corporate ethics and social responsibility, and earnings management decisions. Based on a field survey of professional accountants employed by private industry in Hong Kong, we found that perceptions of the organizational ethical climate were significantly associated with belief in the importance of corporate ethics and responsibility. Belief in the importance of ethics and social responsibility was (...)
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  21. Ethical Theory: An Anthology.Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.) - 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Ethical Theory: An Anthology_ is an authoritative collection of key essays by top scholars in the field, addressing core issues including consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics, as well as traditionally underrepresented topics such as moral knowledge and moral responsibility. Brings together seventy-six classic and contemporary pieces by renowned philosophers, from classic writing by Hume and Kant to contemporary writing by Derek Parfit, Susan Wolf, and Judith Jarvis Thomson Guides students through key areas in the field, among them consequentialism, deontology, contractarianism, (...)
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  22. A Defense of Motivational Externalism.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2000 - Philosophical Studies 97 (3):267-291.
  23. Moral Rules.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1997 - Ethics 107 (4):584-611.
    The traditional conception of ethical theory sees it as the project of developing a coherent set of rules from which one can infer all determinate moral verdicts. I am not optimistic about the prospects for constructing such a theory. To explain this pessimism, we need to understand what moral rules are and what roles they might play in ethical theory.
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  24. Ethical Disagreement, Ethical Objectivism and Moral Indeterminacy.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1994 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (2):331-344.
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  25.  98
    Does Shafer-Landau Have a Problem with Supervenience? [REVIEW]Robert Mabrito - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 126 (2):297 - 311.
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  26.  45
    Constructive Probability.Glenn Shafer - 1981 - Synthese 48 (1):1-60.
  27. Three Problems for Schroeder’s Hypotheticalism. [REVIEW]Russ Shafer-Landau - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 157 (3):435-443.
    Three problems for Schroeder’s Humean theory of reasons.
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  28. Vagueness, Borderline Cases and Moral Realism.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1995 - American Philosophical Quarterly 32 (1):83 - 96.
  29. Moral and Theological Realism: The Explanatory Argument.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2007 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 4 (3):311-329.
    There are striking parallels, largely unexplored in the literature, between skeptical arguments against theism and against moral realism. After sketching four arguments meant to do this double duty, I restrict my attention to an explanatory argument that claims that we have most reason to deny the existence of moral facts (and so, by extrapolation, theistic ones), because such putative facts have no causal-explanatory power. I reject the proposed parity, and offer reasons to think that the potential vulnerabilities of moral realism (...)
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  30.  81
    Ethical Pressure, Organizational-Professional Conflict, and Related Work Outcomes Among Management Accountants.William E. Shafer - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 38 (3):263 - 275.
    This study examines the effects of ethical pressure on management accountants' perceptions of organizational-professional conflict, and related work outcomes. It was hypothesized that organizational pressure to engage in unethical behavior would increase perceived organizational-professional conflict, and that this perceived conflict would reduce organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and increase the likelihood of employee turnover. A survey was mailed to a random sample of Certified Management Accountants to assess perceptions of the relevant variables. The results of a structural equations model indicated (...)
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  31.  47
    Oxford Studies in Metaethics.Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    The essays included in the series provide an excellent basis for understanding recent developments in the field; those who would like to acquaint themselves ...
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  32. Vegetarianism, Causation and Ethical Theory.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1994 - Public Affairs Quarterly 8 (1):85-100.
  33.  18
    Machiavellianism, Social Norms, and Taxpayer Compliance.William E. Shafer & Zhihong Wang - 2018 - Business Ethics: A European Review 27 (1):42-55.
    This study is the first to examine the relationships among Machiavellianism, social norms and taxpayer intentions to fraudulently overstate their deductions. We theorize and empirically document that high Machiavellian taxpayers report significantly less ethical social norms, suggesting that reported social norms are influenced by cognitive biases such as social projection and Machiavellian cynicism; reported social norms are, in general, significantly associated with tax evasion intentions; social norms partially mediate the relationship between Machiavellianism and evasion intentions. Our findings imply that experimental (...)
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  34.  30
    Effects of Materiality, Risk, and Ethical Perceptions on Fraudulent Reporting by Financial Executives.William E. Shafer - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 38 (3):243 - 262.
    This paper examines fraudulent financial reporting within the context of Jones' (1991) ethical decision making model. It was hypothesized that quantitative materiality would influence judgments of the ethical acceptability of fraud, and that both materiality and financial risk would affect the likelihood of committing fraud. The results, based on a study of CPAs employed as senior executives, provide partial support for the hypotheses. Contrary to expectations, quantitative materiality did not influence ethical judgments. ANCOVA results based on participants' estimates of the (...)
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  35. Moral Judgement and Moral Motivation.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1998 - Philosophical Quarterly 48 (192):353-358.
    I criticize an important argument of Michael Smith, from his recent book The Moral Problem (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994). Smith's argument, if sound, would undermine one form of moral externalism 2013 that which insists that moral judgements only contingently motivate their authors. Smith claims that externalists must view good agents as always prompted by the motive of duty, and that possession of such a motive impugns the goodness of the agent. I argue (i) that externalists do not (ordinarily) need to assign (...)
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  36. Can Punishment Morally Educate?Russ Shafer-Landau - 1991 - Law and Philosophy 10 (2):189 - 219.
    Over the past ten years or so, there has been a renewed interest in the moral education theory of punishment. The attractions of the theory are numerous, not least of which is that it offers hopes for a breakthrough in the apparently intractable debate between deterrence theorists and retributivists. Nevertheless, I believe there are severe problems with recent formulations of the theory. First, contemporary educationists all place great emphasis on autonomy, yet fail to show how continued respect for autonomy is (...)
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  37. Error Theory and the Possibility of Normative Ethics.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2005 - Philosophical Issues 15 (1):107-120.
  38. Reply to Shafer-Landau, Mcpherson, and Dancy. [REVIEW]Mark Schroeder - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 157 (3):463-474.
    Reply to Shafer-Landau, Mcpherson, and Dancy Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11098-010-9659-0 Authors Mark Schroeder, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA USA Journal Philosophical Studies Online ISSN 1573-0883 Print ISSN 0031-8116.
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  39.  17
    Languages and Designs for Probability Judgment.Glenn Shafer & Amos Tversky - 1985 - Cognitive Science 9 (3):309-339.
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  40. Foundations of Ethics: An Anthology.Russ Shafer-Landau & Terence Cuneo (eds.) - 2006 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    A substantial collection of seminal articles, Foundations of Ethics covers all of the major issues in metaethics. Covers all of the major issues in metaethics including moral metaphysics, epistemology, moral psychology, and philosophy of language. Provides an unparalleled offering of primary sources and expert commentary for students of ethical theory. Includes seminal essays by ethicists such as G.E. Moore, Simon Blackburn, Gilbert Harman, Christine Korsgaard, Michael Smith, Bernard Williams, Jonathan Dancy, and many other leading figures of ethical theory.
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  41. The Failure of Retributivism.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1996 - Philosophical Studies 82 (3):289 - 316.
  42. Moral Judgement and Normative Reasons.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1999 - Analysis 59 (1):33-40.
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  43.  43
    Liberalism and Paternalism.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2005 - Legal Theory 11 (3):169-191.
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  44. Formal Philosophy: Selected Papers of Richard Montague.Richard Montague - 1974 - New Haven: Yale University Press.
  45.  13
    Coding True Arithmetic in the Medvedev and Muchnik Degrees.Paul Shafer - 2011 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 76 (1):267 - 288.
    We prove that the first-order theory of the Medvedev degrees, the first-order theory of the Muchnik degrees, and the third-order theory of true arithmetic are pairwise recursively isomorphic (obtained independently by Lewis, Nies, and Sorbi [7]). We then restrict our attention to the degrees of closed sets and prove that the following theories are pairwise recursively isomorphic: the first-order theory of the closed Medvedev degrees, the first-order theory of the compact Medvedev degrees, the first-order theory of the closed Muchnik degrees, (...)
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  46.  24
    Social Paradigms and Attitudes Toward Environmental Accountability.William E. Shafer - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 65 (2):121-147.
    This paper argues that commitment to the Dominant Social Paradigm (DSP) in Western societies, which includes support for such ideologies as free enterprise, private property rights, economic individualism, and unlimited economic growth, poses a threat to progress in imposing greater standards of corporate environmental accountability. It is hypothesized that commitment to the DSP will be negatively correlated with support for the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) and support for corporate environmental accountability, and that belief in the NEP will be positively correlated (...)
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  47.  45
    Richard Rorty: An Annotated Bibliography of Secondary Literature.Richard Rumana (ed.) - 2002 - Rodopi.
    Demonstrating Richard Rorty’s breadth of scholarship and his influence on diverse issues across the social sciences and humanities, this comprehensive bibliography contains 1,165 citations. A unique reference work on neo-pragmatism, this bibliography is essential for anyone researching Rorty’s work and its impact on philosophy, literature, the arts, religion, the social sciences, politics, and education.
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  48. Trusting Moral Intuitions.John Bengson, Terence Cuneo & Russ Shafer‐Landau - 2020 - Noûs (4):956-984.
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  49.  76
    A Multidimensional Analysis of Tax Practitioners' Ethical Judgments.Cheryl A. Cruz, William E. Shafer & Jerry R. Strawser - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 24 (3):223 - 244.
    This study investigates professional tax practitioners' ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in cases involving client pressure to adopt aggressive reporting positions, an issue that has been identified as the most difficult ethical/moral problem facing public accounting practitioners. The multidimensional ethics scale (MES) was used to measure the extent to which a hypothetical behavior was consistent with five ethical philosophies (moral equity, contractualism, utilitarianism, relativism, and egoism). Responses from a sample of 67 tax professionals supported the existence of all dimensions of (...)
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  50.  17
    Characterizing the Join-Irreducible Medvedev Degrees.Paul Shafer - 2011 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 52 (1):21-38.
    We characterize the join-irreducible Medvedev degrees as the degrees of complements of Turing ideals, thereby solving a problem posed by Sorbi. We use this characterization to prove that there are Medvedev degrees above the second-least degree that do not bound any join-irreducible degrees above this second-least degree. This solves a problem posed by Sorbi and Terwijn. Finally, we prove that the filter generated by the degrees of closed sets is not prime. This solves a problem posed by Bianchini and Sorbi.
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