Results for 'individuation'

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  1.  6
    Evolutionary Significance of Variation.Variation Among Individuals - 2001 - In C. W. Fox D. A. Roff (ed.), Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies.
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  2. James A. waters.Individual Versus Organizational - 1989 - In A. Pablo Iannone (ed.), Contemporary Moral Controversies in Business. Oxford University Press.
     
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  3. Victor Gerald Rivas.Moral Determination Individuality - 2009 - In Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (ed.), Existence, Historical Fabulation, Destiny. Springer Verlag. pp. 113.
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  4. Jussi varkemaa.Individual Right as Power - 2010 - In Virpi Mäkinen (ed.), The Nature of Rights: Moral and Political Aspects of Rights in Late Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. The Philosophical Society of Finland.
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  5. Index of volume 79, 2001.Stephen Buckle, Miracles Marvels, Mundane Order, Temporal Solipsism, Robert Kirk, Nonreductive Physicalism, Strict Implication, Donald Mertz Individuation, Instance Ontology & Dale E. Miller - 2001 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79 (4):594-596.
     
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  6. Biological Individuals.Robert A. Wilson & Matthew J. Barker - 2024 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The impressive variation amongst biological individuals generates many complexities in addressing the simple-sounding question what is a biological individual? A distinction between evolutionary and physiological individuals is useful in thinking about biological individuals, as is attention to the kinds of groups, such as superorganisms and species, that have sometimes been thought of as biological individuals. More fully understanding the conceptual space that biological individuals occupy also involves considering a range of other concepts, such as life, reproduction, and agency. There has (...)
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  7. Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics.Peter Frederick Strawson - 1959 - London, England: Routledge. Edited by Wenfang Wang.
    Since its publication in 1959, Individuals has become a modern philosophical classic. Bold in scope and ambition, it continues to influence debates in metaphysics, philosophy of logic and language, and epistemology. Peter Strawson's most famous work, it sets out to describe nothing less than the basic subject matter of our thought. It contains Strawson's now famous argument for descriptive metaphysics and his repudiation of revisionary metaphysics, in which reality is something beyond the world of appearances. Throughout, Individuals advances some highly (...)
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  8. The individual.Nathaniel Southgate Shaler - 1900 - New York,: D. Appleton and company.
    This book explores the concept of individuality from a scientific and philosophical perspective. The author examines the relationship between society and individuality, exploring its implications for psychology, biology, and morality. Shaler's writing is clear, engaging, and thought-provoking, making this book an essential read for students of philosophy and psychology. This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the "public domain in (...)
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  9.  55
    Individual and community: the rise of the polis, 800-500 B.C.Chester G. Starr - 1986 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    During the three centuries from 800 to 500 B.C., the Greek world evolved from a primitive society- -both culturally and economically- -to one whose artistic products dominated all Mediterranean markets, supported by a wide overseas trade. In the following two centuries came the literary, philosophical, and artistic masterpieces of the classic area. Vital to this advance was the development of the polis, a collective institution in which citizens had rights as well as duties under the rule of law, a system (...)
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  10.  8
    Catastrophic individuation failures in infancy: A new model and predictions.Maayan Stavans, Yi Lin & Renée di WuBaillargeon - 2019 - Psychological Review 126 (2):196-225.
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  11.  94
    Biological Individuality: The Identity and Persistence of Living Entities.Jack Wilson - 1999 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    What makes a biological entity an individual? Jack Wilson shows that past philosophers have failed to explicate the conditions an entity must satisfy to be a living individual. He explores the reason for this failure and explains why we should limit ourselves to examples involving real organisms rather than thought experiments. This book explores and resolves paradoxes that arise when one applies past notions of individuality to biological examples beyond the conventional range and presents an analysis of identity and persistence. (...)
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  12.  28
    Individuation in light of notions of form and information.Gilbert Simondon - 2020 - Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Edited by Taylor Adkins.
    A long-awaited translation on the philosophical relation between technology, the individual, and milieu of the living.
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  13.  16
    Individuals.P. F. Strawson - 1959 - Garden City, N.Y.: Routledge.
    Since its publication in 1959, Individuals has become a modern philosophical classic. Bold in scope and ambition, it continues to influence debates in metaphysics, philosophy of logic and language, and epistemology. Peter Strawson's most famous work, it sets out to describe nothing less than the basic subject matter of our thought. It contains Strawson's now famous argument for descriptive metaphysics and his repudiation of revisionary metaphysics, in which reality is something beyond the world of appearances. Throughout, Individuals advances some highly (...)
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  14. The individual and his relation to society as reflected in the British ethics of the Eighteenth century.James Hayden Tufts - 1904 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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  15. Metaphysical Disputation V: Individual Unity and its Principle.Francisco Suárez & Jorge J. E. Gracia - 1982
  16. Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics.Peter Strawson - 1959 - London, England: Routledge. Edited by Wenfang Wang.
    The classic, influential essay in 'descriptive metaphysics' by the distinguished English philosopher.
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  17.  11
    Individual and Community in Nietzsche's Philosophy.Julian Young (ed.) - 2014 - New York City: Cambridge University Press.
    According to Bertrand Russell, Nietzsche's only value is the flourishing of the exceptional individual. The well-being of ordinary people is, in itself, without value. Yet there are passages in Nietzsche that appear to regard the flourishing of the community as a whole alongside, perhaps even above, that of the exceptional individual. The ten essays that comprise this volume wrestle with the tension between individual and community in Nietzsche's writings. Some defend a reading close to Russell's. Others suggest that Nietzsche's highest (...)
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  18. Psychedelics and Critical Theory: individualization and alienation in psychedelic psychotherapy.Julien Tempone Wiltshire & Traill Dowie - 2023 - Journal of Psychedelic Studies 7 (3):161–173.
    In the monograph Philosophy and Psychedelics: Frameworks for Exceptional Experience, Hauskeller raises the important subject of individualization and alienation in psychedelic psychotherapy. Under the prevailing conditions of neoliberalism, Hauskeller contends that psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy appropriates Indigenous knowledges in an oppressive fashion, may be instrumentalised to the ends of productivity gain and symptom suppression, and may be utilised to mask societal systems of alienation. Whilst offering a valuable socio-political critique of psychedelics' clinical uptake, we suggest that Hauskeller's view does not adequately acknowledge (...)
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  19.  9
    Returning Individual Research Results from Digital Phenotyping in Psychiatry.Francis X. Shen, Matthew L. Baum, Nicole Martinez-Martin, Adam S. Miner, Melissa Abraham, Catherine A. Brownstein, Nathan Cortez, Barbara J. Evans, Laura T. Germine, David C. Glahn, Christine Grady, Ingrid A. Holm, Elisa A. Hurley, Sara Kimble, Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz, Kimberlyn Leary, Mason Marks, Patrick J. Monette, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, P. Pearl O’Rourke, Scott L. Rauch, Carmel Shachar, Srijan Sen, Ipsit Vahia, Jason L. Vassy, Justin T. Baker, Barbara E. Bierer & Benjamin C. Silverman - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (2):69-90.
    Psychiatry is rapidly adopting digital phenotyping and artificial intelligence/machine learning tools to study mental illness based on tracking participants’ locations, online activity, phone and text message usage, heart rate, sleep, physical activity, and more. Existing ethical frameworks for return of individual research results (IRRs) are inadequate to guide researchers for when, if, and how to return this unprecedented number of potentially sensitive results about each participant’s real-world behavior. To address this gap, we convened an interdisciplinary expert working group, supported by (...)
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  20. Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate?Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):645-665.
    Much research in the last two decades has demonstrated that human responses deviate from the performance deemed normative according to various models of decision making and rational judgment (e.g., the basic axioms of utility theory). This gap between the normative and the descriptive can be interpreted as indicating systematic irrationalities in human cognition. However, four alternative interpretations preserve the assumption that human behavior and cognition is largely rational. These posit that the gap is due to (1) performance errors, (2) computational (...)
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  21.  3
    Individual Liberty, Legal, Moral, and Licentious, in which the Political Fallacies of J.S. Mill's Essay "On Liberty" are Pointed Out.George Vasey & John Stuart Mill - 1877
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  22. Individuals for Anti-Individualists.John Sutton - 2023 - Constructivist Foundations 18 (3):374-376.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Beyond Individual-Centred 4E Cognition: Systems Biology and Sympoiesis” by Mads Julian Dengsø & Michael David Kirchhoff. Abstract: Dengsø and Kirchhoff offer a revised dynamic conception of the individual in place of the bounded cognitive agent of classical cognitive science. However, this may not be sufficiently robust to ground the enquiries into individual and cultural differences that remain vital in the proposed “deterritorialized cognitive science.” It also needs to make contact with rich traditions of 4E (...)
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  23.  29
    Suárez on individuation: Metaphysical disputation V, individual unity and its principle.Francisco Suárez - 1982 - Milwaukee, Wis.: Marquette University Press. Edited by Jorge J. E. Gracia.
  24.  49
    Individuals Across The Sciences.Thomas Pradeu & Alexandre Guay (eds.) - 2016 - New York, État de New York, États-Unis: Oxford University Press.
    What are individuals? How can they be identified? These are crucial questions for philosophers and scientists alike. Criteria of individuality seem to differ markedly between metaphysics and the empirical sciences - and this might well explain why no work has hitherto attempted to relate the contributions of metaphysics, physics and biology on this question. This timely volume brings together various strands of research into 'individuality', examining how different sciences handle the issue, and reflecting on how this scientific work relates to (...)
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  25. Between Individual and Collective Memory: Coordination, Interaction, Distribution.John Sutton - 2008 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 75:23-48.
    Human memory in the wild often involves multiple forms of remembering at once, as habitual, affective, personal, factual, shared, and institutional memories operate at once within and across individuals and small groups. The interdisciplinary study of the ways in which history animates dynamical systems at many different timescales requires a multidimensional framework in which to analyse a broad range of social memory phenomena. Certain features of personal memory - its development, its constructive nature, and its role in temporally extended agency (...)
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  26.  16
    Individuality and mass democracy: Mill, Emerson, and the burdens of citizenship.Alex Zakaras - 2009 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In Individuality and Mass Democracy, Alex Zarakas acknowledges the importance of both, but focuses on the responsibility of citizens.
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  27.  23
    The nature of individual differences in working memory capacity: Active maintenance in primary memory and controlled search from secondary memory.Nash Unsworth & Randall W. Engle - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (1):104-132.
  28.  20
    Individualization in China under Compressed and Contradictory Modernity.Shi Yunqing - 2017 - Temporalités 26.
    Because of its unprecedented speed and scale, urbanization in China during the 1990s is one of the most representative fields in which to explore compressed modernity considering East Asian experiences. This article focuses on a collective litigation including 10,357 people suing the local government for the infringements on their property rights and citizenship during that period of urbanization. To make this massive movement possible under an authoritarian state, a new type of state-individual relationship was created, and a selection mechanism applied (...)
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  29. Audition and composite sensory individuals.Nick Young & Bence Nanay - 2022 - In Rick Grush (ed.), Sensory individuals, properties, and perceptual objects: unimodal and multimodal perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.
    What are the sensory individuals of audition? What are the entities our auditory system attributes properties to? We examine various proposals about the nature of the sensory individuals of audition, and show that while each can account for some aspects of auditory perception, each also faces certain difficulties. We then put forward a new conception of sensory individuals according to which auditory sensory individuals are composite individuals. A feature shared by all existing accounts of sounds and sources is that they (...)
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  30. Individuals: an essay in revisionary metaphysics.Shamik Dasgupta - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 145 (1):35-67.
    We naturally think of the material world as being populated by a large number of individuals . These are things, such as my laptop and the particles that compose it, that we describe as being propertied and related in various ways when we describe the material world around us. In this paper I argue that, fundamentally speaking at least, there are no such things as material individuals. I then propose and defend an individual-less view of the material world I call (...)
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  31. The Individual as Object of Love in Plato.Gregory Vlastos - 1999 - In Gail Fine (ed.), Plato 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul. Oxford University Press.
     
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  32.  1
    Vie, monde, individuation.Jean-Marie Vaysse & Université de Toulouse-le Mirail (eds.) - 2003 - New York: Georg Olms Verlag.
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  33. From individual memory to collective memory: Theoretical and empirical perspectives.Amanda Barnier & John Sutton - 2008 - Memory 16 (3):177-182.
    Very often our memories of the past are of experiences or events we shared with others. And ‘‘in many circumstances in society, remembering is a social event’’ (Roediger, Bergman, & Meade, 2000, p. 129): parents and children reminisce about significant family events, friends discuss a movie they just saw together, students study for exams with their roommates, colleagues remind one another of information relevant to an important group decision, and complete strangers discuss a crime they happened to witness together. Psychology (...)
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  34.  5
    Social Justice and Individual Ethics in an Open Society: Equality, Responsibility, and Incentives.Frank Vandenbroucke - 2001 - Springer.
    Can the need for incentives justify inequality? Starting from this question, Frank Vandenbroucke examines a conception of justice in which both equality and responsibility are involved. In the first part of the inquiry, which explores the implementation of that conception of justice, the justification of incentives assumes that agents make personal choices based only upon their own interests. The second part of the book challenges the idea that a normative conception of distributive justice can be based on that traditional assumption, (...)
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  35.  46
    An Individual's Rate of Forgetting Is Stable Over Time but Differs Across Materials.Florian Sense, Friederike Behrens, Rob R. Meijer & Hedderik Rijn - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):305-321.
    One of the goals of computerized tutoring systems is to optimize the learning of facts. Over a hundred years of declarative memory research have identified two robust effects that can improve such systems: the spacing and the testing effect. By making optimal use of both and adjusting the system to the individual learner using cognitive models based on declarative memory theories, such systems consistently outperform traditional methods. This adjustment process is driven by a continuously updated estimate of the rate of (...)
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  36. The individual in biology and psychology.Robert A. Wilson - 1999 - In V. Harcastle (ed.), Where Biology Meets Psychology. pp. 355--374.
    Individual organisms are obvious enough kinds of things to have been taken for granted as the entities that have many commonly attributed biological and psychological properties, both in common sense and in science. The sorts of morphological properties used by the folk to categorize individual animals and plants into common sense kinds (that's a dog; that's a rose), as well as the properties that feature as parts of phenotypes, are properties of individual organisms. And psychological properties, such as believing that (...)
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  37. Individuality, pluralism, and the phylogenetic species concept.Brent D. Mishler & Robert N. Brandon - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):397-414.
    The concept of individuality as applied to species, an important advance in the philosophy of evolutionary biology, is nevertheless in need of refinement. Four important subparts of this concept must be recognized: spatial boundaries, temporal boundaries, integration, and cohesion. Not all species necessarily meet all of these. Two very different types of pluralism have been advocated with respect to species, only one of which is satisfactory. An often unrecognized distinction between grouping and ranking components of any species concept is necessary. (...)
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  38. Conditionals, Individual Variation, and the Scorekeeping Task.Niels Skovgaard-Olsen, David Kellen, Ulrike Hahn & Karl Christoph Klauer - 2017 - Proceedings of Cognitive Science 39:xxx.
    In this manuscript we study individual variation in the interpretation of conditionals by establishing individual profiles of the participants based on their behavioral responses and reflective attitudes. To investigate the participants’ reflective attitudes we introduce a new experimental paradigm called the Scorekeeping Task, and a Bayesian mixture model tailored to analyze the data. The goal is thereby to identify the participants who follow the Suppositional Theory of conditionals and Inferentialism and to investigate their performance on the uncertain and-to-if inference task.
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  39. Individual Responsibility and the Ethics of Hoping for a More Just Climate Future.Arthur Obst & Cody Dout - 2023 - Environmental Values 32 (3):315-335.
    Many have begun to despair that climate justice will prevail even in a minimal form. The affective dimensions of such despair, we suggest, threaten to make climate action appear too demanding. Thus, despair constitutes a moral challenge to individual climate action that has not yet received adequate attention. In response, we defend a duty to act in hope for a more just (climate) future. However, as we see it, this duty falls differentially upon the shoulders of more and less advantaged (...)
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  40.  25
    Individuality in Early Modern Philosophy.Oliver Istvan Toth - 2022 - In Charles T. Wolfe & Dana Jalobeanu (eds.), Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences. Springer.
  41.  76
    Individuals.David Pears & P. F. Strawson - 1961 - Philosophical Quarterly 11 (44):262.
    Since its publication in 1959, Individuals has become a modern philosophical classic. Bold in scope and ambition, it continues to influence debates in metaphysics, philosophy of logic and language, and epistemology. Peter Strawson's most famous work, it sets out to describe nothing less than the basic subject matter of our thought. It contains Strawson's now famous argument for descriptive metaphysics and his repudiation of revisionary metaphysics, in which reality is something beyond the world of appearances. Throughout, Individuals advances some highly (...)
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  42.  6
    An Individual's Rate of Forgetting Is Stable Over Time but Differs Across Materials.Florian Sense, Friederike Behrens, Rob R. Meijer & Hedderik van Rijn - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):305-321.
    One of the goals of computerized tutoring systems is to optimize the learning of facts. Over a hundred years of declarative memory research have identified two robust effects that can improve such systems: the spacing and the testing effect. By making optimal use of both and adjusting the system to the individual learner using cognitive models based on declarative memory theories, such systems consistently outperform traditional methods (Van Rijn, Van Maanen, & Van Woudenberg, 2009). This adjustment process is driven by (...)
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  43.  34
    Conformity, Individuality, and the Nature of Virtue: A Classical Confucian Contribution to Contemporary Ethical Reflection.Stephen A. Wilson - 1995 - Journal of Religious Ethics 23 (2):263-289.
    The unique discourse of Confucian ritual practice encompasses a powerful and sophisticated way of talking about individual fulfillment within the context of more substantive or universal conceptions of the good life. To make this case, I will consider both the text of the "Analects" and the influential readings of the "Analects" offered by Fingarette in "Confucius: The Secular as Sacred" and by Hall and Ames in "Thinking through Confucius". Though the two interpretive works are helpful in articulating the classical Confucian (...)
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  44.  71
    Self: ancient and modern insights about individuality, life, and death.Richard Sorabji - 2006 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Over the centuries, the idea of the self has both fascinated and confounded philosophers. From the ancient Greeks, who problematized issues of identity and self-awareness, to Locke and Hume, who popularized minimalist views of the self, to the efforts of postmodernists in our time to decenter the human subject altogether, the idea that there is something called a self has always been in steady decline. But for Richard Sorabji, one of our most celebrated living intellectuals, this negation of the self (...)
  45.  26
    The Individualized Society.Zygmunt Bauman - 2013 - Wiley.
    We are spurred into action by our troubles and fears; but all too often our action fails to address the true causes of our worries. When trying to make sense of our lives, we tend to blame our own failings and weaknesses for our discomforts and defeats. And in doing so, we make things worse rather than better. Reasonable beings that we are, how does this happen and why does it go on happening? These are the questions addressed in this (...)
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  46.  51
    Sensory Individuals: Unimodal and Multimodal Perspectives.Aleksandra Mroczko-Wrasowicz & Rick Grush (eds.) - 2023 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Sensory Individuals: Unimodal and Multimodal Perspectives provides an interdisciplinary, well-balanced, and comprehensive look at different aspects of unisensory and multisensory objects, using both nuanced philosophical analysis and informed empirical work. The research presented in this book represents the field's progression from treating neural sensory processes as primarily modality-specific towards its current state of the art, according to which perception, and its supporting neural processes, are multi-modal, modality-independent, meta-modal, and task-dependent. Even within such approaches sensory stimuli, properties, brain activations, and corresponding (...)
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  47.  99
    The Biological Notion of Individual.Robert A. Wilson & Matthew J. Barker - 2013 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Individuals are a prominent part of the biological world. Although biologists and philosophers of biology draw freely on the concept of an individual in articulating both widely accepted and more controversial claims, there has been little explicit work devoted to the biological notion of an individual itself. How should we think about biological individuals? What are the roles that biological individuals play in processes such as natural selection (are genes and groups also units of selection?), speciation (are species individuals?), and (...)
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  48. Individuating the Senses of ‘Smell’: Orthonasal versus Retronasal Olfaction.Keith A. Wilson - 2021 - Synthese 199:4217-4242.
    The dual role of olfaction in both smelling and tasting, i.e. flavour perception, makes it an important test case for philosophical theories of sensory individuation. Indeed, the psychologist Paul Rozin claimed that olfaction is a “dual sense”, leading some scientists and philosophers to propose that we have not one, but two senses of smell: orthonasal and retronasal olfaction. In this paper I consider how best to understand Rozin’s claim, and upon what grounds one might judge there to be one (...)
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  49. Biological individuality: the case of biofilms.Marc Ereshefsky & Makmiller Pedroso - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):331-349.
    This paper examines David Hull’s and Peter Godfrey-Smith’s accounts of biological individuality using the case of biofilms. Biofilms fail standard criteria for individuality, such as having reproductive bottlenecks and forming parent-offspring lineages. Nevertheless, biofilms are good candidates for individuals. The nature of biofilms shows that Godfrey-Smith’s account of individuality, with its reliance on reproduction, is too restrictive. Hull’s interactor notion of individuality better captures biofilms, and we argue that it offers a better account of biological individuality. However, Hull’s notion of (...)
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  50. Biological Individuality: The Identity and Persistence of Living Entities.Jack Wilson - 2001 - Philosophical Quarterly 51 (203):264-266.
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