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Summary What unites Kant’s social, political, and religious philosophies is the role autonomy plays in each of them. A foundational claim of Kant’s political philosophy is that the state’s role is to allow its citizens as much external freedom as possible (freedom from constraint) while not attempting to improve their virtue (their inner freedom, or ability to resist their own sensible desires). Similarly, a central goal of Kant’s philosophy of religion is to delineate what a proper church would be and to explain why we need it. The ideal church is one where confessions of belief (e.g., in particular miracle claims) are not required, but the attempt to live one’s life in conformity with the moral law is. We must strive to build such a church because we each begin our lives radically evil (disposed to subordinate our moral obligations to our own happiness); and, while we can each free ourselves from its thrall, we risk falling back into radical evil so long as there are others in hock to it. Consequently, we are called to build a church organized around combating our innate radical evil in order to go some way to bringing about the highest good (a state where there are perfectly virtuous people who are happy in proportion to their virtue). In other words, the Kantian state allows for outer freedom while the Kantian church focuses on enhancing our inner freedom. Kant’s social philosophy (which includes his philosophy of education) links together his political and religious philosophies: we are to encourage those ways of thinking and behaving that will conduce to the realization of the ideal church and state, and discourage those that oppose their establishment.
Key works Kant's key works in political philosophy are "An Answer to the Question: What Is Enlightenment?", the second section of "On the Common Saying: That May Be Correct in Theory, but It Is of No Use in Practice", "Toward Perpetual Peace", and The Doctrine of Right (the first part of The Metaphysics of Morals) (all of these works can be found in Practical Philosophy). Kant's key works in the philosophy of religion are "The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God" (which can be found in Theoretical Philosophy, 1755-1770), and "On the Miscarriage of All Philosophical Trials in Theodicy", Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, and The Conflict of the Faculties (which can all be found in Religion and Rational Theology). Kant does not have any works dedicated to social philosophy per se, but one can find his social philosophy in parts of Lectures on Pedagogy, The Doctrine of Virtue (the second part of The Metaphysics of Morals), and Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View.
Introductions For introductions to Kant's political philosophy, see Ripstein 2009, Byrd 2010, and Kleingeld 2012. Overviews of Kant's religious thought include Wood 1970, Wood 1978, Michalson 1990, DiCenso 2012, and Pasternack 2014. A nice introduction of Kant's ethical theory that covers much of his social philosophy is Wood 1999.
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  1. Robert Adamson (1854/1993). On the Philosophy of Kant. Routledge/Thoemmes Press.
    There has recently been a considerable amount of research into the influence of 18th century British philosophy--particularly into the thinking of David Hume on Continental philosophy and Kant. The aim of this collection is to provide some of the key texts which illustrate the impact of Kant's thought together with two important 20th century monographs on aspects of Kant's early reception and his influence on philosophical thought. Contents: Immanuel Kant in England 1793-1838 [1931] Rene Wellek 328 pp The Early Reception (...)
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  2. Henry E. Allison (1995). Reflections on the Banality of (Radical) Evil. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 18 (2):141-158.
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  3. Guido Antônio de Almeida (2006). Sobre o Princípio E a Lei Universal Do Direito Em Kant. Kriterion 47 (114):209-222.
  4. B. Althaus & J. Zirfas (2005). Die Unbewusste Karte des Gemüts–Immanuel Kants Projekt der Anthropologie. In Michael B. Buchholz & Günter Gödde (eds.), Macht Und Dynamik des Unbewussten: Auseinandersetzungen in Philosophie, Medizin Und Psychoanalyse. Psychosozial Verlag. 142--144.
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  5. Richard Arneson, Arthur Ripstein, Force and Freedom: Kant's Legal and Political Philosophy.
    In this excellent book Arthur Ripstein develops a broadly Kantian interpretation of tort law and criminal law that is noteworthy for its spirited defense of core features of Anglo-American law and for its uncompromising dismissal of the so-called law and economics approach to these matters. A final chapter extends the analysis to the topic of distributive justice.
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  6. J. Arnould, M. Bellion, R. Bergeret, J. Courcier, J. Fantino, R. Klaine & J. -M. Maldame (2011). Bulletin de Théologie: Théologie de la Création Sciences Et Théologies. Revue des Sciences Philosophiques Et Théologiques 95 (4):921-974.
  7. J. Arnould, R. Bergeret, J. Courcier, J. Fantino, R. Klaine, J. -M. Maldame & D. Renouard (2000). Bulletin de Théologie: Théologie de la Création. Sciences Et Théologies. Revue des Sciences Philosophiques Et Théologiques 84 (1):135-171.
  8. J. Arnould, R. Bergeret, J. Fantino, R. Klaine, J. -M. Maldame & D. Renouard (1994). Bulletin de Théologie. Théologie de la Création. Revue des Sciences Philosophiques Et Théologiques 78 (1):95-124.
  9. José María Artola (2000). Ética y religión en el pensamineto de Kant. Ciencia Tomista 127 (411):161-172.
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  10. Sidney Axinn (1970). Kant on Authority. Southern Journal of Philosophy 8 (2-3):157-163.
  11. Sidney Axinn (1958). Kant, Logic, and the Concept of Mankind. Ethics 68 (4):286-291.
  12. Tom Bailey (2002). Kant and Autonomy Conference. Kant-Studien 93 (4):488-490.
  13. Gary Banham (2011). The Antimonies of Pure Practical Libertine Reason. Angelaki 15 (1):13-27.
    In this article I revisit the relationship between Immanuel Kant and the Marquis De Sade, following not Jacques Lacan but Pierre Klossowski. In the process I suggest that Sade's work is marred by a series of antinomies that prevent him from stating a pure practical libertine reason and leave his view purely theoretical.
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  14. Alexander D. Barder (2007). Otfried Hoffe, Kant's Cosmopolitan Theory of Law and Peace Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 27 (4):270-272.
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  15. F. M. Barnard (1983). Self-Direction: Thomasius, Kant, and Herder. Political Theory 11 (3):343-368.
  16. Hans-Martin Barth (1997). Theologie der Säkularisation heute: Post-säkulare Theologie. Neue Zeitschrift Für Systematische Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 39 (1):27-41.
  17. Donald Becker (1994). Howard Lloyd Williams, Ed., Essays on Kant's Political Philosophy Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 14 (5):376-378.
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  18. David Beckett & Paul Hager (2003). Rejoinder: Learning From Work: Can Kant Do? Educational Philosophy and Theory 35 (1):123–127.
  19. Bob Becking (1988). Theologie Na de Ondergang -Theology After the Fall. Bijdragen 49 (2):150-174.
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  20. Ludvig Beckman (forthcoming). Review of Kant and Modern Political Philosophy. [REVIEW] Theoria.
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  21. Ronald Beiner & William James Booth (1993). Kant & Political Philosophy the Contemporary Legacy. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  22. Ermanno Bencivenga (1996). Kant's Sadism. Philosophy and Literature 20 (1):39-46.
  23. Richard J. Bernstein (2009). The Secular-Religious Divide: Kant's Legacy. Social Research: An International Quarterly 76 (4):1035-1048.
    How has philosophy contributed to bringing about a secular age? What role has philosophy played in bringing about a secular age in which belief and unbelief are both viable options? This paper does not address philosophy in general but rather focuses on a single thinker, Immanuel Kant, to argue that the consequences—both intended and unintended—of Kant's critical philosophy has had the greatest philosophical influence on making unbelief a legitimate alternative to faith in a transcendent God. Initially, the thesis may seem (...)
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  24. A. Bielsa Drotz (2000). The Function and Relevance of Anthropology in Kant's Formal Ethics. Pensamiento 56 (216):379-398.
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  25. Henrik Jøker Bjerre (2005). Enjoying the Law. On a Possible Conflict Between Kant's Views on Obedience and Enjoyment. SATS: Northern European Journal of Philosophy 6 (2):114-127.
  26. James Bohman (2009). Living Without Freedom: Cosmopolitanism at Home and the Rule of Law. Political Theory 37 (4):539 - 561.
    For Kant and many modern cosmopolitans, establishing the rule of law provides the chief mechanism for achieving a just global order. Yet, as Hart and Rawls have argued, the rule of law, as it is commonly understood, is quite consistent with "great iniquities." This criticism does not apply to a sufficiently robust, republican conception of the rule of law, which attributes a basic legal status to all persons. Accordingly, the pervasiveness of dominated persons without legal status is a a fundamental (...)
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  27. James Bohman & Matthias Lutz-Bachmann (eds.) (1997). Perpetual Peace: Essays on Kant's Cosmopolitan Ideal. The Mit Press.
  28. Maria Borges (2014). Passions and Evil in Kant's Philosophy. Manuscrito 37 (2):333-355.
  29. J. Guy Bougerol (1963). Introduction À L’Etude de S. Bonaventure: Bibliothèque de Théologie, Série I: Théologie Dogmatique, Vol. 2. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 12:266-268.
  30. B. Bourgeois (1993). L'idealisation Kantienne de la république : Kant contre Rousseau. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 55 (2):293 - 306.
    According to Kant there is not just a current 'republican morality', as if a republic could be anything else but morality. The republican state is the morality of politics. However, this does not mean that politics has to be made subservient to the ethical order. In itself the state implies for everybody the absolute requirement of submission to the law. Republican morality might and should inspire whichever political body, since the republic is neither a structure (a form of sovereignty) nor (...)
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  31. Stanislas Breton (2013). Optique, théologie, philosophie. Bijdragen 44 (4):366-380.
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  32. Pablo Lazo Briones (2011). Del cataclismo de la revolución a la resistencia permanente. Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana 16 (55):77-88.
    El presente artículo discute la posibilidad del tránsito de la revolución, como momento social de extrema violencia, a la resistencia organizada de forma permanente en los ámbitos de grupos disidentes contra la "totalidad" que los confina a un estatus de dependencia pasiva. En contra de la fetichiza..
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  33. Sarah Broadie (2013). Highest Good. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  34. Manfred Brocker (2006). Kant Über Rechtsstaat Und Demokratie. Vs, Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
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  35. Thom Brooks (2001). Corlett on Kant, Hegel, and Retribution. Philosophy 76 (4):561-580.
    The purpose of this essay is to critically appraise J. Angelo Corlett's recent interpretation of Kant's theory of punishment as well as his rejection of Hegel's penology. In taking Kant to be a retributivist at a primary level and a proponent of deterrence at a secondary level, I believe Corlett has inappropriately wed together Kant's distinction between moral and positive law. Moreover, his support of Kant on these grounds is misguided as it is instead Hegel who holds such a distinction. (...)
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  36. Stuart M. Brown Jr (1962). Has Kant a Philosophy of Law? Philosophical Review 71 (1):33-48.
  37. Garrett Wallace Brown (2010). Kant's Cosmopolitanism. In Garrett Wallace Brown & David Held (eds.), The Cosmopolitanism Reader. Polity.
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  38. Peter Byrne (1979). Kant's Moral Proof of the Existence of God. Scottish Journal of Theology 32 (4):333--343.
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  39. H. C. (1964). La Pensée Politique de Kant. Review of Metaphysics 18 (1):186-186.
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  40. J. D. C. (1971). Kant's Moral Religion. Review of Metaphysics 24 (4):760-760.
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  41. Georg Cavallar (2012). Cosmopolitanisms in Kant's Philosophy. Ethics and Global Politics 5 (2):95-118.
    Interpretations of Kant usually focus on his legal or political cosmopolitanism, a cluster of ideas revolving around perpetual peace, an international organisation, the reform of international law, and what Kant has termed cosmopolitan law or the law of world citizens . In this essay, I argue that there are different cosmopolitanisms in Kant, and focus on the relationship among political, legal or juridical, moral and ethico-theological cosmopolitanisms. I claim that these form part of a comprehensive system and are fully compatible (...)
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  42. Georg Cavallar (2008). Conflicts in Kant's Account of the Right to Go to War. The European Legacy 2 (6):991-999.
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  43. Georg Cavallar (2006). Commentary on Susan Meld Shell's 'Kant on Just War and "Unjust Enemies": Reflections on a "Pleonasm"'. Kantian Review 11 (1):117-124.
    In her essay , 82–111), Shell wants to demonstrate that 1. Kant's theory of the right of nations ‘can furnish us with some much needed practical help and guidance’, and 2. ‘Kant is less averse to the use of force, including resort to pre-emptive war… than he is often taken to be’ . The first claim is unconvincing. The second one is in need of clarification. Shell turns Kant into a kind of realist and just-war theorist, into a liberal who (...)
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  44. Partha Chatterjee (2008). Kant's Politics: Provisional Theory for an Uncertain World. Contemporary Political Theory 7 (1):111-114.
  45. Louis-Marie Chauvet (2009). La théologie sacramentaire aujourd'hui : quelques axes de recherche à promouvoir. Recherches de Science Religieuse 4 (4):491-514.
    Il s’avère nécessaire d’élaborer une théologie fondamentale de la sacramentalité qui implique une réévaluation de notre rapport à la théologie sacramentaire scolastique et invite à la fois à en mesurer les limites et à s’alimenter de ce qu’elle a de meilleur . Parmi les points qui requièrent une vigilance particulière, l’auteur aborde les sacrements en tant qu’actions de l’Église , le lien intime entre Parole et Sacrement . Il évoque également l’anamnèse eucharistique , l’épiclèse sacramentelle et la dimension eschatologique des (...)
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  46. Eyal Chowers (1999). The Marriage of Time and Identity: Kant, Benjamin and the Nation-State. Philosophy and Social Criticism 25 (3):57-80.
    The paper explores the role played by concepts of temporality in shaping the self's identity and its moral responsibility. This theme is examined in both Kant and Benjamin, two theorists who view the modern self as an essentially historical being. For Kant, teleological and uniform time shoulders the heightening of the self's universal attributes and the constant expansion of a moral community. The desired end is the establishment of an integrated and homogeneous human space, a cosmopolitan stage wherein history is (...)
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  47. Milan M. Ćirković (2004). Kant and Extragalactic Revolution in Astronomy. Theoria 47 (1-2):95-109.
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  48. Robert R. Clewis (2006). Kant's Consistency Regarding the Regime Change in France. Philosophy and Social Criticism 32 (4):443-460.
    Can it be consistent to be interested, for moral reasons, in the fact that uninvolved spectators of a regime change are enthusiastic about that change, when the latter is carried out according to means considered immoral or unjust? Yes. In ‘An Old Question Raised Again’ ( The Conflict of the Faculties , 1798), Kant demonstrates a morally based interest in disinterested spectators’ expressions (aesthetic judgments) of enthusiasm for the idea of a republican form of government. This interest is puzzling. Kant's (...)
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  49. R. Coles (2007). Books in Review: The Kantian Imperative: Humiliation, Common Sense, Politics, by Paul Saurette. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005. 305 Pp. $35.00 (Paper); $75.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Political Theory 35 (2):231-233.
  50. William E. Connolly (1997). A Critique of Pure Politics. Philosophy and Social Criticism 23 (5):1-26.
    This essay examines lines of connection between disgust, the effect of disciplines upon such intensive appraisals, political action, and the shape of ethical responsiveness. Philosophies that espouse purity in moral ity or politics mask these lines of connection; they thereby disparage the sig nificance of techniques of the self to ethical and political life. Immanuel Kant and Hannah Arendt provide the two main figures through whom these themes are explored. Arendt and Kant are brought into relation with each other through (...)
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