Ce texte a déjà paru dans Intermédialités : histoire et théorie des arts, des lettres et des techniques / Intermediality : History and Theory of the Arts, Literature and Technologies, n° 16, 2010, p. 105-128, puis sur Erudit.org. Nous remercions Laurent Guido de nous avoir autorisé à le reproduire ici. Depuis une vingtaine d'années, l'idée de mondialisation s'est imposée au sein des discours et des pratiques culturelles, dans un contexte où sont apparues de nouvelles techniques d'information et de - (...) Cinéma, animation et vidéo – GALERIE – Nouvel article. (shrink)
The hypothesis that anatomically modern homo sapiens could have undergone changes akin to those observed in domesticated animals has been contemplated in the biological sciences for at least 150 years. The idea had already plagued philosophers such as Rousseau, who considered the civilisation of man as going against human nature, and eventually.
While many with schizophrenia experience deficits in metacognition it is unclear whether those deficits are related to other features of illness. To explore this issue, the current study classified participants with schizophrenia as possessing a deficit in both awareness of their own emotions and those of others , aware of their own emotions but unaware of the emotions of others and aware of their own emotions and of other’s emotions . Groups were compared on assessments of neurocognitive function, symptoms, and (...) history of sexual trauma. ANCOVA controlling for education found that the group unaware of their own emotions and those of others demonstrated poorer verbal memory, processing speed, executive function, less emotional discomfort and higher levels of disorganization symptoms relative to the other groups. The group aware of their own emotions but not those of others had a significantly higher report of childhood sexual abuse. (shrink)
Inadequate pain control, especially in older adults, remains a significant issue when caring for this population. Older adults, many of whom experience multiple acute and chronic conditions, are especially vulnerable to having their pain seriously underassessed and inadequately treated. Nurses have an ethical obligation to appropriately treat patients’ pain. To fulfill their ethical obligation to relieve pain in older patients, nurses often need to advocate on their behalf. This article provides an overview of the persistent problem of undertreated pain in (...) older adults and explores how nurses can meet this ethical duty through the application of Beauchamp and Childress’ three principles of beneficence. (shrink)
Keller & Miller (K&M) propose that many psychiatric disorders are best explained in terms of a genetic watershed model. This view challenges traditional evolutionary accounts of psychiatric disorders, many of which have tried to argue in support of a presumed balanced polymorphism, implying some hidden adaptive advantage of the alleles predisposing people to psychiatric disorders. Does this mean that evolutionary ideas are no longer viable to explain psychiatric disorders? The answer is no. However, K&M's critical evaluation supports the view that (...) psychiatric disorders are not categorically distinct from normalcy, and that evolutionary psychopathology should be grounded in rigorous empirical testing. (Published Online November 9 2006). (shrink)
Este artigo apresenta o projeto de G. Vico para o estabelecimento da ciência moral. Vico esteve empenhado na emancipação do estudo das manifestações objetivas do espírito por intermédio da reforma do racionalismo cartesiano. A crítica ao iluminismo é feita com a retomada do conceito de barbárie no âmbito da filosofia, contrapondo-o ao conceito de esclarecimento do Século das Luzes.
A species like ours, whose life critically depends on the ability to foresee, plan, and shape future events, is vulnerable to dysfunction if any one facet contributing to what Suddendorf & Corballis (S&C) call (MTT) is affected by disease. Although the authors mention brain pathology as a potential cause of disturbed MTT, they fail to explore psychopathological syndromes as a source to better understand the significance of MTT for normal functioning and adaptive behaviour.
An evolutionary theory of schizophrenia needs to address all symptoms associated with the condition. Burns' framework could be extended in a way embracing behavioural signs such as catatonia. Burns' theory is, however, not specific to schizophrenia. Since no one single symptom exists that is pathognomonic for “schizophrenia,” an evolutionary proposal of psychiatric disorders raises the question whether our anachronistic psychiatric nosology warrants revision.
Studies in economic decision-making have demonstrated that individuals appreciate social values supporting equity and disapprove unfairness when distributing goods between two or more parties. However, this seems to critically depend on psychological mechanisms partly pertaining to the ingroup–outgroup distinction. Little is known as to what extent economic bargaining can be manipulated by means of psychological interventions such has hypnosis. Here we show that a hypnotic ingroup versus outgroup suggestion impacts the tolerance of unfairness in an Ultimatum Game. Specifically, the ingroup (...) suggestion was associated with significantly greater acceptance rates of unfair offers than the outgroup suggestion, whereas hypnosis alone exerted only small effects on unfairness tolerance. These findings indicate that psychological interventions such as hypnotic suggestion can contribute to ingroup favoritism and outgroup rejection. (shrink)
In der Rekonstruktion zentraler Gedanken beschranke ich mich auf die Philosophie des Organischen. Zunachst fuhre ich in Jonas' Stufenfolge des organischen Lebens und die "hochste" Stufe--d.i. seine Bestimmung des Menschen--ein und erganze diese Bestimmung; sodann rekapituliere ich seine Lesart der Stufen des Organischen uber die Stufe des einfachen Organismus bis zum hochentwickelten Tier unter Einbeziehung von moglichen naturwissenschaftlichen Einwanden. Endlich erortere ich Jonas' phanomenologisches Verstehen der Evolution "vom Hochsten aus" und konfrontiere es mit einer evolutionstheoretischen "Erklarung von unten" am Beispiel (...) einer evolutionstheoretischen Erklarung "von unten", die Wolf Singer in seiner neurophysiologisch-evolutionistischen Erklarung des menschlichen "Bewusstseins" aus Elementen, Strukturen und Funktionen des Gehirns vorgeschlagen hat. (edited). (shrink)
-/- Attempts to reduce irreversible processes to the scope of Newton’s mechanics are particularly challenging topics for both physical and philosophical research. Hollinger and Zenzen,1 for instance, claim that macroscopic irreversibility has a mechanical origin, and they explain this within the Newtonian framework. Newton’s Scientific and Philosophical Legacy Newton’s Scientific and Philosophical Legacy Look -/- .
Eliot Porter: In the Realm of Nature contains 110 images from the collections of Daniel Greenberg and Susan Steinhauser; the Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas; and of the J. Paul Getty Museum, along with an essay by Paul Martineau that ...
Il saggio propone alcune osservazioni a margine delle tre lezioni tenute dal giudice federale statunitense Guido Calabresi a Macerata nel 2012. Le lezioni riguardano l'organizzazione delle corti di giustizia federale negli Stati Uniti, la forma e il ruolo delle sentenze giudiziarie all'interno di un sistema federale e il rapporto che intrattiene con la pena di morte un giudice a essa decisamente contrario. Secondo Melis queste lezioni restituiscono in maniera straordinariamente viva e precisa la struttura del sistema giudiziario e, al (...) tempo stesso, l'esperienza soggettiva di un giudice. (shrink)
This paper aims to study the concept of “fact of reason”, with the assistance Beck as North on the stage of transcendental philosophy, more specifically its basic Kantian approach, continuing to explore the potential of the above since the contributions of Guido de Almeida and Loparic.
Francis Ingledew's impressive recent article in this journal argues the following: that the Trojan historiography produced by secular clerics for Norman lords and English kings is characterized by the defining features of the Virgilian philosophy of history . Even if the “Book of Troy” is “irreducible … to any single work,” Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia regum Britanniae may be taken to be exemplary of it, since Geoffrey's “book is the effective mastertext of the new rendering of the historical field.” In (...) this article I set aside my agreement with the broad thrust of Ingledew's argument; instead I want to qualify it in two ways. In the first place, I question whether the template of the Aeneid can be used quite so straightforwardly for Galfridian material. More importantly, I question the notion of one “Troy Book.” There is another version of the “Troy Book,” that of Guido delle Colonne's Historia destructionis Troiae, translations of which constitute a significant body of English vernacular writing in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. This tradition is resolutely anti-imperialistic in every way. Even if works in this tradition were written for aristocratic readers, they were pitched from a clerical position that stood opposed to imperial enterprise. I make each of these points by looking back to English narratives in the Guido tradition from the vantage point of Gavin Douglas's early-sixteenth-century translation of the Aeneid, his Eneados. (shrink)
This paper is intended to offer an analysis of William of Ockham's and Guido Terreni's discourses on papal authority; it illuminates how their polemical use of the same authority -- Thomas Aquinas -- resulted in two diametrically opposed views. Guido Terreni's precarious understanding of Aquinas' commentary on the gospel of Luke stretched papal authority on doctrinal definition to the point of papal infallibility. Whereas, William of Ockham's use (and transformation) of Aquinas' idea of the object of explicit faith (...) resulted in a demand that every ecclesiastical authority should have thorough knowledge of the Christian faith and take every caution in doctrinal decision making. The paper shows that, in the context of polemics, Aquinas' ecclesiology was dissolved and different aspects of it were exaggerated by Terreni and Ockham. Thus, the paper also highlights Ockham's polemical skill in turning Aquinas -- the papalists' favourite authority -- against them. (shrink)
Guido Imaguire proposes an epistemological formulation of Ockham’s razor in terms of the notion of explanatory reduction. Although in my response I express reservations about some aspects of the specific formulations, I agree with the general epistemological idea.Guido Imaguire propõe uma formulação epistemológica da navalha de Occam em termos da noção de redução explicativa. Apesar de em minha réplica expressar reservas com respeito à alguns aspectos das formulações, concordo com a idéia geral epistemológica.
Sulla base del ms. Vat. Borg. 39 viene edita la quaestio I del Quodlibet IV. Nell'introduzione l'A. ricorda le posizioni espresse da Enrico di Gand, Duns Scoto, Gerardo da Bologna e Erveo Natale sul tema in questione. La posizione di Guido sull'analogia dell'essere, per quanto originale, si costituisce come una valida alternativa alla opinio communis rappresentata da Gerardo da Bologna, Erveo Natale e da molti altri autori attivi tra la fine del XIII sec. e gli inizi del XIV.
In this article I examine the metaphysical foundations of Guido de Ruggiero’s liberalism and ask what these can tell us about his changing view of Giovanni Gentile's actualism, which was such an influence on de Ruggiero before the First World War. I argue that de Ruggiero’s ‘actualism’ was never the same as Gentile’s, but was drawn from the same intellectual sources; that the actualist conception of free and self-conscious agency runs through both versions of the doctrine, though interpreted in (...) different ways; and finally that the contrasts between de Ruggiero’s and Gentile’s political allegiances result from something other than their differing interpretations of actualism, which serves, in the end, not so much as a theory as a set of basic principles, images and ideals that each philosopher tried to modify and match to the political circumstances in which he found himself. (shrink)
Ce texte a déjà paru dans la revue October, N° 131, Winter 2010, p. 23–50. Nous remercions Michael Cowan de nous avoir autorisé à le reproduire ici. In September of 1925, readers leafing through Der Kinematograph or Lichtbildbühne or another such film journal might have encountered a strangely familiar sight : in an advertisement for a major exhibition of the German film and photography industries entitled “Kipho” (“Kino und Photo”), which was to be held in Berlin from September 25th to (...) (...) - Cinéma, animation et vidéo – GALERIE – Nouvel article. (shrink)