Results for 'Two Arguments Against Foundatationalism'

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  1.  1
    Philip Montague On Punishment 1 John Wright The Explanatory Role of Realism 35 Stephn Kershnar The Structure of Rights Forfeiture in the Context Of Culpable Wrongdoing 57 Paul M. Huges The Logic of Temptation 89. [REVIEW]Paul Cortios Ritual, Jane Duran, Two Arguments Against Foundatationalism, David Kaspar, Sara Worley & Tjeerd B. Jongeling - 2002 - Philosophia 29 (1-4):241-252.
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  2.  90
    Two Arguments Against the Punishment-Forbearance Account of Forgiveness.Brandon Warmke - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 165 (3):915-920.
    One account of forgiveness claims that to forgive is to forbear punishment. Call this the Punishment-Forbearance Account of forgiveness. In this paper I argue that forbearing punishment is neither necessary nor sufficient for forgiveness.
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  3. Two Arguments Against Realism.Timothy Bays - 2008 - Philosophical Quarterly 58 (231):193–213.
    I present two generalizations of Putnam's model-theoretic argument against realism. The first replaces Putnam's model theory with some new, and substantially simpler, model theory, while the second replaces Putnam's model theory with some more accessible results from astronomy. By design, both of these new arguments fail. But the similarities between these new arguments and Putnam's original arguments illuminate the latter's overall structure, and the flaws in these new arguments highlight the corresponding flaws in Putnam's (...). (shrink)
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  4. Two Arguments Against Lying.ChristineM Korsgaard - 1988 - Argumentation 2 (1):27-49.
    Kant and Sidgwick are at opposite extremes on whether we may tell paternalistic lies. I trace the extremism to their views about ethical concepts. Sidgwick thinks fundamental ethical concepts must be precise. Common Sense morality says we may tell paternalistic lies to children but not to sane adults. Because the distinction between a child and an adult is imprecise, Sidgwick thinks this principle cannot be fundamental, and must be based on the {precise) principle of utility, which often mandates paternalistic lies (...)
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  5.  68
    Two Arguments Against Biological Interests.Aaron Simmons - 2010 - Environmental Ethics 32 (3):229-245.
    In both environmental ethics and bioethics, one central issue is the range of entities that are morally considerable. According to one view on this issue, we ought to extend consideration to any entity that possesses interests. But what kinds of entities possess interests? Some philosophers have argued that only sentient beings can have interests, while others have held that all living organisms possess interests in the fulfillment of their biological functions. Is it true that all living organisms have biological interests? (...)
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  6. Two Arguments Against Ethical Egoism.James Rachels - 1974 - Philosophia 4 (2-3):297-314.
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  7.  23
    On Two Arguments Against Moral Certainty.Douglas Odegard - 1981 - Mind 90 (357):79-90.
    Some moral philosophers, Such as ross and moore, Think that, Whereas we can be sure of limited judgments concerning "prima facie" duties and intrinsic values, We cannot be sure of judgments of rightness or wrongness. Two arguments for this type of scepticism are examined. The first works only if we assume, With ross, That '"prima facie" duty' is a moral notion, Not an epistemic notion. The second works only if we assume that there is no difference between uncertainty about (...)
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  8.  90
    Two Arguments Against Foundationalism.Jane Duran - 2002 - Philosophia 29 (1-4):241-252.
    Bringing to bear two major lines of argument, I claim that foundationalism is vitiated by its reliance (in its various forms) on privileged access, and by its noninstantiability. The notion of privileged access is examined, and the status of propositions said to be evocative of privileged access addressed. Noninstantiability is viewed through the current project of naturalizing epistemology, and naturalized alternatives to the rigorous foundationalism of the normative epistemologists are brought forward.
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  9.  19
    Two Arguments Against Disquotationalism.Douglas Patterson - 2002 - Dialectica 56 (2):99–108.
    Attempts to argue that the disquotational theory of truth is somehow self‐refuting have appeared largely unchallenged in the literature for some time now. Focusing on presentations by Anil Gupta and Crispin Wright, I contend that such arguments only undermine a view that nobody endorses. This done, I explain why it is fruitless to focus, as these arguments do, on deflationary accounts of the expressive function of the truth‐predicate. I then suggest a strategy for arguing against disquotationalism and (...)
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  10. Two Arguments Against the Identity Thesis.M. C. Bradley - 1969 - In Robert Brown & C.D. Rollins (eds.), Contemporary Philosophy in Australia. London: Allen & Unwin.
     
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  11.  74
    Assimilations and Rollbacks: Two Arguments Against Libertarianism Defended.Seth Shabo - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (1):151-172.
    The Assimilation Argument purports to show that libertarians cannot plausibly distinguish supposed exercises of free will from random outcomes that nobody would count as exercises of free will. If this argument is sound, libertarians should either abandon their position or else concede that free will is a mystery. Drawing on a parallel with the Manipulation Argument against compatibilism, Christopher Franklin has recently contended that the Assimilation Argument is unsound. Here I defend the Assimilation Argument and the Rollback Argument, a (...)
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  12.  36
    Two Arguments Against the Cognitivist Theory of Emotions.John-Michael Kuczynski - 2004 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 11 (2):65-72.
    According to one point of view, emotions are recognitions of truths of a certain kind -- most probably valuative truths (truths to the effect that something is good or bad). After giving the standard arguments for this view, and also providing a new argument of my own for it, I set forth two arguments against it. First, this position makes all emotions be epistemically right or wrong. But this view is hard to sustain where certain emotions (especially (...)
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  13. Organisms, Traits, and Population Subdivisions: Two Arguments Against the Causal Conception of Fitness?Grant30 Ramsey - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):589-608.
    A major debate in the philosophy of biology centers on the question of how we should understand the causal structure of natural selection. This debate is polarized into the causal and statistical positions. The main arguments from the statistical side are that a causal construal of the theory of natural selection's central concept, fitness, either (i) leads to inaccurate predictions about population dynamics, or (ii) leads to an incoherent set of causal commitments. In this essay, I argue that neither (...)
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  14. Two Arguments Against Some Critics of Religion Based on Feeling and Emotion Following William James.Katja Thörner - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (3):207--224.
    In this paper I will show that you can distinguish two main types of argumentation in respect to feeling and emotions in the philosophy of religion of William James, which point to two different kind of criticism of religion. Especially in his early works, James argues that you may lawfully adopt religious beliefs on the basis of passional grounds. This argumentation points to a type of criticism of religion, which denies that beliefs based on such emotional grounds may be justified. (...)
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  15.  48
    Two Arguments Against the Identity Theory of Mind.Desmond M. Clarke - 1972 - Philosophical Studies (Dublin) 21:100-110.
    IN discussions of the identity theory of mind, there is constant recourse to two related types of argument, from ordinary language usage, to the effect that the theory in question is either false or meaningless. We can refer to the two arguments under discussion as the category argument and the meaninglessness argument. If either one of these arguments were well founded we could decide a priori without waiting for further research in the relevant sciences, whether or not the (...)
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  16.  14
    Two Arguments Against the Identity Theory of Mind.Desmond M. Clarke - 1972 - Philosophical Studies (Dublin) 21:100-110.
    IN discussions of the identity theory of mind, there is constant recourse to two related types of argument, from ordinary language usage, to the effect that the theory in question is either false or meaningless. We can refer to the two arguments under discussion as the category argument and the meaninglessness argument. If either one of these arguments were well founded we could decide a priori without waiting for further research in the relevant sciences, whether or not the (...)
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  17.  20
    Two Arguments Against the Generic Multiverse.Toby Meadows - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-37.
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  18.  13
    Two Arguments Against Antirealism in Relation to Artefact Kinds.Marzia Soavi, Silvia Gaio & Massimiliano Carrara - 2014 - In Javier Cumpa, Greg Jesson & Guido Bonino (eds.), Defending Realism: Ontological and Epistemological Investigations. De Gruyter. pp. 9-28.
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  19.  13
    Two Arguments Against Realism.Author unknown - manuscript
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  20. Two Arguments Against the Identity Theory of Mind.Desmond M. Clarke - 1972 - Philosophical Studies (Dublin) 21:100-110.
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  21.  31
    Two Arguments Against a Private Language.Moreland Perkins - 1965 - Journal of Philosophy 62 (17):443-459.
  22. Fifteen Arguments Against Hypothetical Frequentism.Alan Hájek - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (2):211-235.
    This is the sequel to my “Fifteen Arguments Against Finite Frequentism” ( Erkenntnis 1997), the second half of a long paper that attacks the two main forms of frequentism about probability. Hypothetical frequentism asserts: The probability of an attribute A in a reference class B is p iff the limit of the relative frequency of A ’s among the B ’s would be p if there were an infinite sequence of B ’s. I offer fifteen arguments (...) this analysis. I consider various frequentist responses, which I argue ultimately fail. I end with a positive proposal of my own, ‘hyper-hypothetical frequentism’, which I argue avoids several of the problems with hypothetical frequentism. It identifies probability with relative frequency in a hyperfinite sequence of trials. However, I argue that this account also fails, and that the prospects for frequentism are dim. (shrink)
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  23.  18
    A Critical Discussion of Arguments Against the Introduction of a Two-Tier Healthcare System in Japan.Atsushi Asai, Taketoshi Okita, Masashi Tanaka & Yasuhiro Kadooka - 2017 - Asian Bioethics Review 9 (3):171-181.
    In medical ethics, an appropriate national healthcare system that meets the requirements of justice in healthcare resource allocation is a major concern. Japan is no exception to this trend, and the pros and cons of introducing a two-tier healthcare system, which permits insured medical care services to be provided along with services not covered by social health insurance, have been the subject of debate for many years. The Supreme Court ruled in 2011 that it was valid for the government to (...)
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  24. Two Mereological Arguments Against the Possibility of an Omniscient Being.Joshua T. Spencer - 2006 - Philo 9 (1):62-72.
    In this paper I present two new arguments against the possibility of an omniscient being. My new arguments invoke considerations of cardinality and resemble several arguments originally presented by Patrick Grim. Like Grim, I give reasons to believe that there must be more objects in the universe than there are beliefs. However, my arguments will rely on certain mereological claims, namely that Classical Extensional Mereology is necessarily true of the part-whole relation. My first argument is (...)
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  25. Three Arguments Against Prescription Requirements.Jessica Flanigan - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (10):579-586.
    In this essay, I argue that prescription drug laws violate patients' rights to self-medication. Patients have rights to self-medication for the same reasons they have rights to refuse medical treatment according to the doctrine of informed consent (DIC). Since we should accept the DIC, we ought to reject paternalistic prohibitions of prescription drugs and respect the right of self-medication. In section 1, I frame the puzzle of self-medication; why don't the same considerations that tell in favour of informed consent also (...)
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  26. Plantinga's Probability Arguments Against Evolutionary Naturalism.Branden Fitelson & Elliott Sober - 1998 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 79 (2):115–129.
    In Chapter 12 of Warrant and Proper Function, Alvin Plantinga constructs two arguments against evolutionary naturalism, which he construes as a conjunction E&N .The hypothesis E says that “human cognitive faculties arose by way of the mechanisms to which contemporary evolutionary thought directs our attention (p.220).”1 With respect to proposition N , Plantinga (p. 270) says “it isn’t easy to say precisely what naturalism is,” but then adds that “crucial to metaphysical naturalism, of course, is the view that (...)
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  27.  24
    Is It Acceptable to Use Animals to Model Obese Humans?: A Critical Discussion of Two Arguments Against the Use of Animals in Obesity Research.Thomas Bøker Lund, Thorkild I. A. Sørensen, I. Anna S. Olsson, Axel Kornerup Hansen & Peter Sandøe - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (5):320-324.
    Animal use in medical research is widely accepted on the basis that it may help to save human lives and improve their quality of life. Recently, however, objections have been made specifically to the use of animals in scientific investigation of human obesity. This paper discusses two arguments for the view that this form of animal use, unlike some other forms of animal-based medical research, cannot be defended. The first argument leans heavily on the notion that people themselves are (...)
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  28.  13
    Two Arguments for Impossiblism and Why It Isn’T Impossible to Refute Them.Joseph Corabi - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (2):569-584.
    This paper examines two arguments against the possibility of moral responsibility—the first directly from the work of Galen Strawson and the next inspired by Strawson’s argument. Both of these arguments are found wanting, and their shortcomings are used as a springboard to sketch a positive libertarian view of moral responsibility and defend that view against preliminary objections.
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  29. Organisms, Traits, and Population Subdivisions: Two Arguments Against the Causal Conception of Fitness?Grant Ramsey - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):589-608.
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  30.  14
    Some Arguments Against Discriminatory Gifts and Trusts.Matthew Harding - 2011 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 31 (2):303-326.
    This article presents some arguments against the persistence of the common law freedom to discriminate, in the disposition of property by gift or trust, whether inter vivos or testamentary, on a range of grounds like sex, race and religion. Broadly, two claims are defended. The first is that the elimination of discriminatory gifts and trusts is possible, within the bounds set by orthodox methods of common law reasoning, at least in jurisdictions where a non-discrimination norm operates at the (...)
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  31.  54
    Hume's Scepticism and Realism - His Two Profound Arguments Against the Senses in An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.Jani Hakkarainen - 2007 - Tampere, Finland: University of Tampere.
    The main problem of this study is David Hume’s (1711-76) view on Metaphysical Realism (there are mind-independent, external, and continuous entities). This specific problem is part of two more general questions in Hume scholarship: his attitude to scepticism and the relation between naturalism and skepticism in his thinking. A novel interpretation of these problems is defended in this work. The chief thesis is that Hume is both a sceptic and a Metaphysical Realist. His philosophical attitude is to suspend his judgment (...)
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  32.  10
    The Ethics of Separating Conjoined Twins: Two Arguments Against.Luke Kallberg - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (1):27-56.
    I argue that the separation of conjoined twins in infancy or early childhood is unethical. Cases may be divided into three types: both twins suffer from lethal abnormalities, only one twin has a lethal abnormality, or neither twin does. In the first kind of case, there is no reason to separate, since both twins will die regardless of treatment. In the third kind of case, I argue that separation at an early age is unethical because the twins are likely to (...)
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  33. Autonomy-Based Arguments Against Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: A Critique. [REVIEW]Manne Sjöstrand, Gert Helgesson, Stefan Eriksson & Niklas Juth - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):225-230.
    Respect for autonomy is typically considered a key reason for allowing physician assisted suicide and euthanasia. However, several recent papers have claimed this to be grounded in a misconception of the normative relevance of autonomy. It has been argued that autonomy is properly conceived of as a value, and that this makes assisted suicide as well as euthanasia wrong, since they destroy the autonomy of the patient. This paper evaluates this line of reasoning by investigating the conception of valuable autonomy. (...)
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  34.  31
    On Arguments Against the Empirical Adequacy of Finite State Grammar.Richard Daly - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (4):461-475.
    In the first part of this paper, two arguments, one by Chomsky, and one by Bar-Hillel and Shamir, are examined in detail and rejected. Both arguments purport to show that the structure of English precludes its having a finite state grammar which correctly enumerates just the well formed sentences of English. In the latter part of the paper I consider the problem of supporting claims about the structure and properties of a natural language when no grammar for the (...)
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  35.  63
    Two Arguments for the Etiological Theory Over the Modal Theory of Biological Function.Brian Leahy & Maximilian Huber - 2017 - Synthese 194 (4).
    This paper contains a positive development and a negative argument. It develops a theory of function loss and shows how this undermines an objection raised against the etiological theory of function in support of the modal theory of function. Then it raises two internal problems for the modal theory of function.
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  36. Some Arguments Against Intentionalism.John-Michael Kuczynski - 2004 - Acta Analytica 19 (32):107-141.
    According to a popular doctrine known as "intentionalism," two experiences must have different representational contents if they have different phenomenological contents, in other words, what they represent must differ if what they feel like differs. Were this position correct, the representational significance of a given affect (or 'quale'---plural 'qualia'--to use the preferred term), e.g. a tickle, would be fixed: what it represented would not be a function of the subject's beliefs, past experiences, or other facts about his past or present (...)
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  37.  5
    Methodological and Substantial Arguments Against “Conceptual Eurocentrism”.Andrew V. Paribok & Ruzana V. Pskhu - 2019 - Russian Journal of Philosophical Sciences 62 (6):54-69.
    This paper summarized the basic results of the philosophical discussion that was held in the Institute of Philosophy of Russian Academy of Sciences on April 25, 2019. The authors had been the main opponents of Andrey Krushinskiy approach, according to which there are processes of monopolization of discourse domain by the European conceptual apparatus of philosophy in the contemporary Chinese philosophy. In other words, in opinion of Andrey Krushinskiy, this “conceptual Eurocentrism” is the future of every possible attempt of philosophizing (...)
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  38.  73
    Locke’s Arguments Against the Freedom to Will.Matthew A. Leisinger - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 25 (4):642-662.
    In sections 2.21.23-25 of An Essay concerning Human Understanding, John Locke considers and rejects two ways in which we might be “free to will”, which correspond to the Thomistic distinction between freedom of exercise and freedom of specification. In this paper, I examine Locke’s arguments in detail. In the first part, I argue for a non-developmental reading of Locke’s argument against freedom of exercise. Locke’s view throughout all five editions of the Essay is that we do not possess (...)
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  39.  60
    Brian Hebblethwaite's Arguments Against Multiple Incarnations.Timothy Pawl - 2016 - Religious Studies 52 (1):117-130.
    In this article I present two arguments from Brian Hebblethwaite for the conclusion that multiple incarnations are impossible, as well as the analyses of those arguments provided by three other thinkers: Oliver Crisp, Peter Kevern, and Robin Le Poidevin. I argue that both of Hebblethwaite's arguments are unsound.
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  40.  55
    On Two Recent Arguments Against Intellectualism.Kok Yong Lee - 2020 - NCCU Philosophical Journal 43:35-68.
    Several authors have recently argued against intellectualism, the view that one’s epistemic position with respect to p depends exclusively on one’s truth-relevant factors with respect to p. In this paper, I first examine two prominent arguments for the anti-intellectualist position and find both of them wanting. More precisely, I argue that these arguments, by themselves, are underdetermined between intellectualism and anti-intellectualism. I then manifest the intuitive plausibility of intellectualism by examining the ordinary conversational pattern of challenging a (...)
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  41.  87
    On Quantum Propensities: Two Arguments Revisited.Mauricio Suárez - 2004 - Erkenntnis 61 (1):1-16.
    Peter Milne and Neal Grossman have argued against Popper's propensity interpretation of quantum mechanics, by appeal to the two-slit experiment and to the distinction between mixtures and superpositions, respectively. In this paper I show that a different propensity interpretation successfully meets their objections. According to this interpretation, the possession of a quantum propensity by a quantum system is independent of the experimental set-ups designed to test it, even though its manifestations are not.
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  42.  23
    Stanovich's Arguments Against the “Adaptive Rationality” Project: An Assessment.Andrea Polonioli - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 49:55-62.
    This paper discusses Stanovich's appeal to individual differences in reasoning and decision-making to undermine the “adaptive rationality” project put forth by Gigerenzer and his co-workers. I discuss two different arguments based on Stanovich's research. First, heterogeneity in the use of heuristics seems to be at odds with the adaptationist background of the project. Second, the existence of correlations between cognitive ability and susceptibility to cognitive bias suggests that the “standard picture of rationality” (Stein, 1996, 4) is normatively adequate. I (...)
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  43. Two Epistemological Arguments Against Two Semantic Dispositionalisms.Andrea Guardo - 2020 - Journal for the Philosophy of Language, Mind and the Arts 1 (1):5-17.
    Even though he is not very explicit about it, in “Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language” Kripke discusses two different, albeit related, skeptical theses ‒ the first one in the philosophy of mind, the second one in the metaphysics of language. Usually, what Kripke says about one thesis can be easily applied to the other one, too; however, things are not always that simple. In this paper, I discuss the case of the so-called “Normativity Argument” against semantic dispositionalism (which (...)
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  44. Why the 'Black Market' Arguments Against Legalizing Organ Sales Fail.James Stacey Taylor - 2006 - Res Publica 12 (2):163-178.
    One of the most widespread objections to legalizing a market in human organs is that such legalization would stimulate the black market in human organs. Unfortunately, the proponents of this argument fail to explain how such stimulation will occur. To remedy thus, two accounts of how legalizing markets in human organs could stimulate the black market in them are developed in this paper. Yet although these accounts remedy the lacuna in the anti-market argument from the black market neither of them (...)
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  45.  27
    Two Neo-Kantian Arguments Against Real Existential Predication.Charles J. Kelly - 1985 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 59:100.
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  46.  75
    A Plantingian Pickle for a Darwinian Dilemma: Evolutionary Arguments Against Atheism and Normative Realism.Daniel Crow - 2016 - Ratio 29 (2):130-148.
    Two of the most prominent evolutionary debunking arguments are Sharon Street's Darwinian Dilemma for Normative Realism and Alvin Plantinga's Evolutionary Argument against Atheism. In the former, Street appeals to evolutionary considerations to debunk normative realism. In the latter, Plantinga appeals to similar considerations to debunk atheism. By a careful comparison of these two arguments, I develop a new strategy to help normative realists resist Street's debunking attempt. In her Darwinian Dilemma, Street makes epistemological commitments that ultimately support (...)
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  47. Two Arguments for Scientific Realism Unified.Harker David - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (2):192-202.
    Inferences from scientific success to the approximate truth of successful theories remain central to the most influential arguments for scientific realism. Challenges to such inferences, however, based on radical discontinuities within the history of science, have motivated a distinctive style of revision to the original argument. Conceding the historical claim, selective realists argue that accompanying even the most revolutionary change is the retention of significant parts of replaced theories, and that a realist attitude towards the systematically retained constituents of (...)
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  48.  52
    Sceptical Overkill: On Two Recent Arguments Against Scepticism.Kieron O'Hara - 1993 - Mind 102 (406):315-327.
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  49. “Bamboozled by Our Own Words”: Semantic Blindness and Some Arguments Against Contextualism.Keith Derose - 2006 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (2):316 - 338.
    The best grounds for accepting contextualism concerning knowledge attributions are to be found in how knowledge-attributing (and knowledge-denying) sentences are used in ordinary, nonphilosophical talk: What ordinary speakers will count as “knowledge” in some non-philosophical contexts they will deny is such in others. Contextualists typically appeal to pairs of cases that forcefully display the variability in the epistemic standards that govern ordinary usage: A “low standards” case (henceforth, “LOW”) in which a speaker seems quite appropriately and truthfully to ascribe knowledge (...)
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  50.  9
    Debunking Two Myths Against Vocal Origins of Language.Marcus Perlman - 2017 - Interaction Studies 18 (3):376-401.
    Gesture-first theories of language origins often raise two unsubstantiated arguments against vocal origins. First, they argue that great ape vocal behavior is highly constrained, limited to a fixed, species-typical repertoire of reflexive calls. Second, they argue that vocalizations lack any significant potential to ground meaning through iconicity, or resemblance between form and meaning. This paper reviews the considerable evidence that debunks these two “myths”. Accumulating evidence shows that the great apes exercise voluntary control over their vocal behavior, including (...)
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