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Summary In addition to its positive account of synthetic a priori cognition in mathematics and natural science, The Critique of Pure Reason also had the goal of exposing the fraudulent basis for the putatively synthetic a priori cognition contained in the doctrines of traditional metaphysics, namely, rational psychology, general cosmology, and natural theology. Kant has long been judged particularly successful in achieving this latter goal, to the extent that Moses Mendelssohn dubbed him the 'all destroying Kant.' 
Key works Grier 2001 brought renewed attention to Kant's doctrine of illusion and its systematic role in his criticism of metaphysics. Other discussions of Kant's general criticism of traditional metaphysics can be found in Bennett 1974, Allison 2004, and Bird 2006.
Introductions Useful introductions to Kant's criticism of traditional metaphysics can be found in Ameriks' contribution to Guyer 1992, and in Grier's SEP entry on the topic
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  1. Werner Beierwaltes (1974). Transcendental Dialectic. A Commentary on Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. Part IV: The Doctrine of Method. [REVIEW] Philosophy and History 7 (1):15-16.
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  2. Gordon Brittan (2011). Review: Bird, The Revolutionary Kant: Introduction. Kantian Review 16 (2):211-219.
    The interpretation of Kant's Critical philosophy as a version of traditional idealism has a long history. In spite of Kant's and his commentators’ various attempts to distinguish between traditional and transcendental idealism, his philosophy continues to be construed as committed to various features usually associated with the traditional idealist project. As a result, most often, the accusation is that his Critical philosophy makes too strong metaphysical and epistemological claims.In his The Revolutionary Kant, Graham Bird engages in a systematic and thorough (...)
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  3. Predrag Cicovacki (2004). Through the Prism of the Metaphor: A Reflection of the Actuality of Kant's Philosophy. Filozofija I Društvo 25:101-111.
    This essay examines the significance of Kant's transcendental philosophy by focusing on the central metaphors used in his works. The four metaphors singled out here are those of the Copernican turn, the land of truth and the ocean of illusion, the starry heavens and the moral law, and of perpetual peace. The author emphasizes the strong and the weak points of Kant's philosophy that these metaphors reveals, and argues that these central metaphors work together and point toward the two essential (...)
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  4. D. P. Dryer (1976). BENNETT, JONATHAN "Kant's Dialectic". [REVIEW] Philosophy 51:110.
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  5. Wolfgang Ertl (2005). Michele Grier: Kant's Doctrine of Transcendental Illusion. [REVIEW] Kant-Studien 96:519-526.
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  6. Elena Ficara (ed.) (2012). Skeptizismus Und Philosophie: Kant, Fichte, Hegel. Editions Rodopi.
    InhaltsverzeichnisElena Ficara: EinleitungMarco Ivaldo: Skeptizismus bei Fichte mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Rolle des Zweifels in der »Bestimmung des Menschen«Angelica Nuzzo: A Question of Method: Transcendental Philosophy, Dialectic, and the Problem of DeterminationRainer Schäfer: Kombinationen von Fundamentalismus, Kohärentismus und Skepsis bei Kant, Fichte und Hegel als Antworten auf Probleme gegenwärtiger EpistemologieElena Ficara: Skeptizismus und die Begründung der Philosophie bei Kant und HegelLidia Gasperoni: Maimon und der SkeptizismusJürgen Stahl: Skeptizismus und Kritik – zur Wandlung der Kritikauffassung im transzendentalen Idealismus FichtesKlaus Vieweg: Moralität, (...)
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  7. Max Gottschlich (forthcoming). Wenn Kant, dann Hegel. Zu Franz Unglers Deutung des Verhältnisses von Transzendentalphilosophie und Dialektik. Wiener Jahrbuch für Philosophie.
  8. Max Gottschlich (2013). Transzendentalphilosophie und Dialektik. In , Die drei Revolutionen der Denkart – Systematische Beiträge zum Denken von Bruno Liebrucks [The Three Revolutions in the Way of Thinking – Systematical Contributions to Bruno Liebrucks]. Alber. 42-92.
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  9. Justus Hartnack (1977). Jonathan Bennett, "Kant's Dialectic". [REVIEW] Metaphilosophy 8:208.
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  10. Heinz Heimsoeth (1966). Transzendentale Dialektik. De Gruyter.
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  11. Mark Pickering (2011). The Idea of the Systematic Unity of Nature as a Transcendental Illusion. Kantian Review 16 (3):429-448.
    The Appendix to the Transcendental Dialectic of Kant's first Critique is notorious for two reasons. First, it appears to contradict itself in saying that the idea of the systematic unity of nature is and is not transcendental. Second, in the passages in which Kant appears to espouse the former alternative, he appears to be making a significant amendment to his account of the conditions of the possibility of experience in the Transcendental Analytic. I propose a solution to both of these (...)
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  12. Klaus Reich (1935). Tönnies, Ilse, Kants Dialektik des Scheins. [REVIEW] Société Française de Philosophie, Bulletin 40:313.
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  13. A. Savile (1976). BENNETT, J. "Kant's Dialectic". [REVIEW] Mind 85:611.
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  14. Marco Sgarbi (2009). Kant, Rabe e la logica aristotelica. Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia:289-313.
    Kant, Rabe e la logica aristotelica - This article shows the influence of the Aristotelian Paul Rabe on Immanuel Kant’s philosophy. In the first part, I reconstruct the status quaestions regarding Rabe in Aristotelian studies and in Kantforschung. The second part looks at Rabe’s life and works. It is demonstrated in the third part that Kant’s definition of dialectic as Logik des Scheins comes from Rabe’s definition of dialectic as logica ex apparentibus. The fourth part shows the Aristotelian origin of (...)
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  15. Francesco Tomasoni (2004). Mendelssohn and Kant. History of European Ideas 30 (3):267-294.
    Metaphysics is a field where the positions of Kant and Mendelssohn differed significantly, from the essays for the Academy of Sciences right up to their last works. While Kant is increasingly doubtful of the objective validity of metaphysics and comes to admit only its subjective significance as a reflection of insuppressible human need, Mendelssohn continues to defend its objective validity with respect to sciences and natural theology. After reducing the valid proofs for the existence of God to the ontological argument, (...)
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  16. Giorgio Tonelli (1967). H. Heimsoeth, Transzendentale Dialektik. Ein Kommentar zur Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft. [REVIEW] Filosofia 18 (4):902.
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Kant: Rational Psychology
  1. Henry E. Allison (1995). On Naturalizing Kant's Transcendental Psychology. Dialectica 49 (2‐4):335-356.
  2. Henry E. Allison (1989). Kant's Refutation of Materialism. The Monist 72 (2):190-208.
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  3. Karl Ameriks (2000). Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason. Oxford University Press.
    This seminal contribution to Kant studies, originally published in 1982, was the first to present a thorough survey and evaluation of Kant's theory of mind. Ameriks focuses on Kant's discussion of the Paralogisms in the Critique of Pure Reason, and examines how the themes raised there are treated in the rest of Kant's writings. Ameriks demonstrates that Kant developed a theory of mind that is much more rationalistic and defensible than most interpreters have allowed.
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  4. James G. Anderson (1980). Kant's Paralogism of Personhood. Grazer Philosophische Studien 10:73-86.
    Jonathan Bennett's two interpretations of Kant's Third Paralogism are shown to be inadequate. The Third Paralogism attempts to show that rational psychology provides an inadequate basis for the application of the concepts of "personhood" and "substance". The criteria for the application of "personhood" and "substance" must be empirical, and in the case of "personhood" they are bodily criteria. These criteria are available to each of us but only upon pains of abandoning what Bennett calls the Cartesian basis, i.e. rational psychology.
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  5. Richard E. Aquila (2004). The Singularity and the Unity of Transcendental Consciousness in Kant. History of European Ideas 30 (3):349-376.
    Transcendental consciousness is described by Kant as 'the one single thing' in which 'as in the transcendental subject, our perceptions must be encountered.' The unity of that subject depends on intellectual functions. I argue that its singularity is just the same as that of Kant's pre-intellectual 'form' of spatiotemporal 'intuition.' This may seem excluded by Kant's claim that it is through intellect that 'space or time are first given as intuitions.' But while preintellectual form is insufficient for space and time (...)
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  6. Richard E. Aquila (1997). Self as Matter and Form: Some Reflections on Kant’s View of the Soul. In David Klemm and Zöller (ed.), Figuring the Self. SUNY Press.
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  7. Richard E. Aquila (1996). Kant and the Mind. International Studies in Philosophy 28 (4):105-107.
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  8. Richard E. Aquila (1979). Personal Identity and Kant's “Refutation of Idealism”. Kant-Studien 70 (1-4):259-278.
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  9. Ralf M. Bader (2012). The Role of Kant's Refutation of Idealism. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 94 (1):53-73.
    This paper assesses the role of the Refutation of Idealism within the Critique of Pure Reason, as well as its relation to the treatment of idealism in the First Edition and to transcendental idealism more generally. It is argued that the Refutation is consistent with the Fourth Paralogism and that it can be considered as an extension of the Transcendental Deduction. While the Deduction, considered on its own, constitutes a 'regressive argument', the Refutation allows us to turn the Transcendental Analytic (...)
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  10. Gary Banham (2005). Kant's Transcendental Imagination. Palgrave Macmillan.
    The role and place of transcendental psychology in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason has been a source of some contention. This work presents a detailed argument for restoring transcendental psychology to a central place in the interpretation of Kant's Analytic, in the process providing a detailed response to more "austere" analytic readings.
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  11. Edward A. Beach (2008). The Postulate of Immortality in Kant: To What Extent is It Culturally Conditioned? Philosophy East and West 58 (4):pp. 492-523.
    Kant's noncognitive argument based on practical reason claims that moral considerations alone suffice to justify the idea of personal immortality as a postulate. Some recent objections are considered here that have charged him with overstepping his own distinction between phenomenon and noumenon. After examining the arguments, Kant is exonerated of having violated his own principles. More troubling, however, is the peculiarity involved in postulating an infinite progression toward a goal whose attainment, by hypothesis, would undermine the very foundations of morality (...)
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  12. Graham H. Bird (2000). The Paralogisms and Kant's Account of Psychology. Kant-Studien 91 (2):129-145.
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  13. Archibald A. Bowman (1916). Kant's View of Metaphysics. Mind 25 (97):1-24.
  14. Ernest G. Braham (1926). Personality and Immortality in Post-Kantian Thought. London, G. Allen & Unwin, Ltd..
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  15. Eva Brann (2001). Ameriks, Karl. Kant's Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason. Review of Metaphysics 55 (2):374-376.
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  16. George Sidney Brett (1912/1998). A History of Psychology. Thoemmes Press.
    'the whole work is remarkably fresh, vivid and attractively written psychologists will be grateful that a work of this kind has been done ... by one who has the scholarship, science, and philosophical training that are requisite for the task' - Mind This renowned three-volume collection records chronologically the steps by which psychology developed from the time of the early Greek thinkers and the first writings on the nature of the mind, through to the 1920s and such modern preoccupations as (...)
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  17. Edgar Sheffield Brightman (1925). Immortality in Post-Kantian Idealism. Harvard University Press.
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  18. Klaus Brinkmann (2005). Consciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Modern Self. History of the Human Sciences 18 (4):27-48.
    The concept of the self is embedded in a web of relationships of other concepts and phenomena such as consciousness, self-consciousness, personal identity and the mind–body problem. The article follows the ontological and epistemological roles of the concept of selfconsciousness and the structural co-implication of consciousness and self-consciousness from Descartes and Locke to Kant and Sartre while delineating its subject matter from related inquiries into the relationship between the mind and the body, personal identity, and the question whether consciousness is (...)
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  19. Andrew Brook, Kant's View of the Mind and Consciousness of Self. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  20. Andrew Brook (1994). Kant and the Mind. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant made a number of highly original discoveries about the mind - about its ability to synthesise a single, coherent representation of self and world, about the unity it must have to do so, and about the mind's awareness of itself and the semantic apparatus it uses to achieve this awareness. The past fifty years have seen intense activity in research on human cognition. Even so, Kant's discoveries have not been superseded, and some of them have not even been assimilated (...)
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  21. Karl Bühler (1926). Die Krise der Psychologie. Kant-Studien 31 (1-3):455-526.
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  22. Andrew N. Carpenter (1998). Review: Shell, The Embodiment of Reason: Kant on Spirit, Generation and Community. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 2 (1):134-143.
  23. Andrew Norris Carpenter (1998). Kant's Earliest Solution to the Mind/Body Problem. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    In 1747, Kant believed that the mind/body problem presupposed several false and interrelated assumptions that fell under the general view that the essential force of body is vis motrix, namely that bodies act only by causing changes of motion, that bodies can be acted upon only by being moved, and that souls and bodies do not share a common force. He argued in Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces that the traditional vis motrix view, which was defended by (...)
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  24. Howard Caygill (2007). Soul and Cosmos in Kant : A Commentary on 'Two Things Fill the Mind ...'. In Diane Morgan & Gary Banham (eds.), Cosmopolitics and the Emergence of a Future. Palgrave Macmillan.
  25. Ruth F. Chadwick (1994). Kant, Thought Insertion, and Mental Unity. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 1 (2):105-113.
  26. Brian Chance (2011). Sensibilism, Psychologism, and Kant's Debt to Hume. Kantian Review 16 (3):325-349.
    Hume’s account of causation is often regarded a challenge Kant must overcome if the Critical philosophy is to be successful. But from Kant’s time to the present, Hume’s denial of our ability to cognize supersensible objects, a denial that relies heavily on his account of causation, has also been regarded as a forerunner to Kant’s critique of metaphysics. After identifying reasons for rejecting Wayne Waxman’s recent account of Kant’s debt to Hume, I present my own, more modest account of this (...)
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  27. James Van Cleve (1986). Kant's First and Second Paralogisms. The Monist 69 (3):483 - 488.
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  28. James Collins (1968). Transzendentale Dialektik: Ein Kommentar Zu Kants Kritik der Reinen Vernunft. Parts I and II. By Heinz Heimsoeth. Modern Schoolman 46 (1):89-89.
  29. John Davenport, Kant's Refutation of Idealism and Fourth Paralogism: A Response to Vogel.
    I will discuss Kant's arguments in these section in three parts. In Part I, I will try to show how we can make sense of the obviously close relations in theme and content between the Refutation of Idealism and the two version of the Fourth Paralogism, as well as the second Postulate of Empirical Thought. This will serve as a kind of introduction, since on a cursory first reading, the connections might be far from apparent. In the process, I (...)
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  30. J. J. Delfour (1997). Enigmatic Ambiguity in the Fourth Paralogism of Kant's 'Kritik der Reinen Vernunft'-A Fine Line Between Reality and Effectivity. Kant-Studien 88 (3):280-310.
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  31. Manfred Durner (1996). Immateriality of Matter: Theorien der Materie Bei Priestley, Kant Und Schopenhauer. Philosophisches Jahrbuch 103 (2):294-322.
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  32. Klaus Düsing (1983). Constitution and Structure of Self-Identity: Kant's Theory of Apperception and Hegel's Criticism. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 8 (1):409-431.
  33. Corey W. Dyck (forthcoming). Beyond the Paralogisms: Kant on the Soul’'s Immortality in the Lectures on Metaphysics. In Robert Clewis (ed.), Reading Kant's Lectures. De Gruyter.
    Considered in light of the reader’s expectation of a thoroughgoing criticism of the pretensions of the rational psychologist, and of the wealth of discussions available in the broader 18th century context, which includes a variety of proofs that do not explicitly turn on the identification of the soul as a simple substance, Kant’s discussion of immortality in the Paralogisms falls lamentably short. However, outside of the Paralogisms (and the published works generally), Kant had much more to say about the arguments (...)
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  34. Corey W. Dyck (2014). Kant and Rational Psychology. Oxford University Press.
    In this monograph, I argue that the received conception of the aim and results of Kant’s Paralogisms must be revised in light of a proper understanding of the rational psychology that is the most proximate target of Kant’s attack. Introduction. Chapter 1: The Marriage of Reason and Experience: Wolff’s Rational Psychology. Chapter 2: From Wolff to Kant: Rational Psychology in the 18th Century. Chapter 3: The Divorce of Reason and Experience: Pure Rational Psychology and the Substantiality of the Soul. Chapter (...)
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