Words

Edited by Guy Longworth (University of Warwick)
About this topic
Summary Philosophers and linguists reflect in a variety of ways on the natures of words. One range of issues here concern the metaphysics of words: are words concrete items in the world, kinds of items, or elements of some other category? What are the principles for counting words? Are there ambiguous words, or are there, for example, a variety of words each spelled "bank"? Are words basic, or are they built from more basic elements, like morphemes, features, or letters? Connected with the last question, philosophers and linguists have discussed issues about the internal semantic structure of words, a version of the question whether words are definable. Sometimes this issue is pursued via the question, are there building blocks for words that can only be combined in a limited range of ways and thus make it impossible for there to be certain words, at least in normal human languages?
Key works Kaplan 1990 David Kaplan's important early discussion of the metaphysics of words. Kaplan 2011 Further, more recent discussion by Kaplan, responding to the following two pieces. Hawthorne & Lepore 2011 Important recent discussion of the metaphysics of words. Bromberger 2011 Another useful discussion of the metaphysics of words. Wetzel 2002 Useful discussion of the metaphysics of words and types more generally. Pinker manuscript Useful overview of work on the nature of words within theoretical linguistics.
Introductions Wetzel 2008
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555 found
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  1. added 2020-05-17
    Мислене и стихотворене.Vasil Penchev - 2007 - Sofia: "М. Михайлов".
    Heidegger has created a new philosophical genre: poetric and philosophical thought by his paters on Hölderlin and other poets. Philosophy and poetry a two tops of human thought, each of which can be seen from the other one. The book contains essays in that genre and tradition.
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  2. added 2020-04-27
    The Problem of Creation and Abstract Artifacts.Nurbay Irmak - forthcoming - Synthese:1-14.
    Abstract artifacts such as musical works and fictional entities are human creations; they are intentional products of our actions and activities. One line of argument against abstract artifacts is that abstract objects are not the kind of objects that can be created. This is so, it is argued, because abstract objects are causally inert. Since creation requires being caused to exist, abstract objects cannot be created. One common way to refute this argument is to reject the causal inefficacy of abstracta. (...)
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  3. added 2020-04-22
    A Pluralistic Theory of Wordhood.Luca Gasparri - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    What are words and how should we individuate them? There are two main answers on the philosophical market. For some, words are bundles of structural-functional features defining a unique performance profile. For others, words are non-eternal continuants individuated by their causal-historical ancestry. These conceptions offer competing views of the nature of words, and it seems natural to assume that at most one of them can capture the essence of wordhood. This paper makes a case for pluralism about wordhood: the view (...)
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  4. added 2020-03-16
    The Philosophy of Linguistics: Scientific Underpinnings and Methodological Disputes.Ryan M. Nefdt - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (12).
    This article surveys the philosophical literature on theoretical linguistics. The focus of the paper is centred around the major debates in the philosophy of linguistics, past and present, with specific relation to how they connect to the philosophy of science. Specific issues such as scientific realism in linguistics, the scientific status of grammars, the methodological underpinnings of formal semantics, and the integration of linguistics into the larger cognitive sciences form the crux of the discussion.
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  5. added 2020-01-19
    Words and Representations.Bence Nanay - 1997 - Magyar Filozofiai Szemle 41:805-826.
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  6. added 2019-11-17
    Key Concepts: Associationism.Manfred Spitzer - 1994 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 1 (2):135-137.
    Associationism can be broadly defined as a school of thought in philosophy and psychology that holds that mental activity can be accounted for by processes that combine simple elements or ideas. More than a century ago, scientific psychology started taking measurements of word associations, and only a few years later, word associations became a major research tool in psychiatry. With the advent of neurobiology and the discovery of the neuron, the term association came to denote physical connections between cells or (...)
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  7. added 2019-10-10
    Processing of a Subliminal Rebus During Sleep: Idiosyncratic Primary Versus Secondary Process Associations Upon Awakening From REM- Versus Non-REM-Sleep.Jana Steinig, Ariane Bazan, Svenja Happe, Sarah Antonetti & Howard Shevrin - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
    Primary and secondary processes are the foundational axes of the Freudian mental apparatus: one horizontally as a tendency to associate, the primary process, and one vertically as the ability for perspective taking, the secondary process. Primary process mentation is not only supposed to be dominant in the unconscious but also, for example, in dreams. The present study tests the hypothesis that the mental activity during REM-sleep has more characteristics of the primary process, while during non-REM-sleep more secondary process operations take (...)
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  8. added 2019-10-09
    Утвердження національної ідентичності в словотвірній морфонології девербативів.Inna Demeshko - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:140-148.
    У статті розглянуто проблемні питання дериваційних відношень, напрямів морфонологічних трансформацій, складні процеси, пов’язані з використанням варіантних формантів та з утвердженням національної ідентичності в словотвірній морфонології девербативів і відповідність їх словотвірним нормам української літературної мови, окреслено концептуальні засади морфонологічного аналізу девербативів, проаналізовано ефективні й специфічні методи й прийоми дослідження віддієслівних іменників у словотвірно-морфонологічному аспекті та визначено найбільш дієві методики аналізу морфонологічних явищ.
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  9. added 2019-10-09
    Концепція російсько-українського академічного словника за редакцією А. Кримського та С. Єфремова.Olha Los - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:148-157.
    У статті описано підходи до написання словників у перші десятиліття ХХ ст. Розглянуто концепцію і принципи укладання російсько-українського академічного словника. Проаналізовано реалізацію концепції російсько-українського академічного словника як лексикографічної праці, що поєднує риси перекладного, тлумачного, синонімічного та фразеологічного словників.
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  10. added 2019-10-09
    Переосмислення семантики лексем на позначення мистецьких напрямів і течій у сучасних тлумачних словниках української мови.Inna Renchka - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:165-176.
    Статтю присвячено висвітленню особливостей деідеологізації лексем на позначення мистецьких напрямів і течій у сучасних українських словниках тлумачного типу, що відбувається під впливом змін у житті українського суспільства наприкінці XX – на початку XXI ст. Дослідження здійснено на основі порівняльного аналізу тлумачень слів у лексикографічних працях радянського і пострадянського періодів. Виявлено приклади неповної деідеологізації лексичних одиниць зазначеної тематичної групи.
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  11. added 2019-10-09
    Структурно-семантична організація лексико-семантичного мікрополя «повага» в сучасній українській мові.Kateryna Blyzniuk - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:132-139.
    У статті проаналізовано лексемний і семний склад мікрополя «повага», а також його системну організацію в українській мові. Компоненти значення, що функціонують у мікрополі, відбиваають семантику поваги, пошани щодо об’єкта почуття, яким для лексико-семантичного поля «патріотизм» виступають Батьківщина, власний народ, його закони, традиції, історія тощо.
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  12. added 2019-10-09
    Синкретизм складнопідрядних речень займенниково-співвідносного типу симетричної структури.Vasyl Ozhohan & Andriy Ozhohan - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:209-218.
    У статті проаналізовано синкретичні семантико-синтаксичні відношення у структурі складнопідрядних займенниково-співвідносних речень симетричного типу, з’ясовано причини, що впливають на формування цих синкретичних відношень.
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  13. added 2019-10-08
    A Bundle Theory of Words.J. T. M. Miller - 2019 - Synthese:1-18.
    It has been a common assumption that words are substances that instantiate or have properties. In this paper, I question the assumption that our ontology of words requires posting substances by outlining a bundle theory of words, wherein words are bundles of various sorts of properties (such as semantic, phonetic, orthographic, and grammatical properties). I argue that this view can better account for certain phenomena than substance theories, is ontologically more parsimonious, and coheres with claims in linguistics.
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  14. added 2019-09-25
    «Тяжко його було переїхати і стрілити у ворота». Жаргонізми в українській футбольній лексиці першої половини хх століття.Iryna Protsyk - 2018 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 4:95-110.
    Предметом розгляду в статті є жаргонізми, що функціювали в українському футбольному дискурсі першої половини ХХ ст. Проаналізовано семантику жаргонних лексичних одиниць та покласифіковано їх на групи за тематичним принципом. Детально зосереджено увагу на з’ясуванні особливостей жаргонізмів із тематичної групи назв футбольних дій та процесів, зокрема описано їхнє походження та способи їхнього творення.
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  15. added 2019-09-25
    Зміни в семантиці лексичних одиниць економічної сфери в сучасній українській тлумачній лексикографії.Inna Renchka - 2018 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 4:111-128.
    У статті розглянуто семантичні процеси в економічній лексиці української мови, що відбуваються під впливом важливих подій у житті суспільства кінця XX – початку XXI ст. Здійснено порівняльний аналіз словникових статей лексем економічної сфери в українських лексикографічних працях тлумачного типу радянського та пострадянського періодів, які фіксують зміни в їхній семантиці. З’ясовано, що слова позбуваються ідеологічної конотації, набутої в умовах функціонування в радянському тоталітарному дискурсі.
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  16. added 2019-09-25
    Що успадкували сучасні львів’яни від розбишак міжвоєнного часу: до питання актуалізації батярського жаргону.Liudmyla Pidkuimukha - 2018 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 4:80-94.
    Статтю присвячено актуалізації батярського жаргону, одному із різновидів розмовного мовлення Львова в міжвоєнний період. Проаналізовано основні групи лексики, зафіксовані в романах Юрія Винничука «Цензор снів» (2013) і «Танґо смерті» (2016). Визначено функції львівського лексикону в художніх текстах, схарактеризовано образ батяра. Особливу увагу приділено вивченню жаргону цієї соціальної групи як мовно-психологічної характеристики персонажів.
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  17. added 2019-09-25
    Джерела реєстру російсько-українського академічного словника за редакцією А. Кримського та С. Єфремова та їхній вплив на академічний словник.Olga Los - 2018 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 4:155-165.
    У статті описано джерела реєстру російсько-українського академічного словника за редакцією А. Кримського та С. Єфремова, а також інших російсько-українських словників 20-х рр. ХХ ст. Реєстри тогочасних перекладних словників базувалися переважно на реєстрах перекладних словників, виданих раніше, частково залучалися словники інших типів, зокрема термінологічні, а також матеріали преси.
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  18. added 2019-09-10
    The Ontology of Words: A Structural Approach.Ryan M. Nefdt - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (8):877-911.
    ABSTRACTWords form a fundamental basis for our understanding of linguistic practice. However, the precise ontology of words has eluded many philosophers and linguists. A persistent difficulty for most accounts of words is the type-token distinction [Bromberger, S. 1989. “Types and Tokens in Linguistics.” In Reflections on Chomsky, edited by A. George, 58–90. Basil Blackwell; Kaplan, D. 1990. “Words.” Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume LXIV: 93–119]. In this paper, I present a novel account of words which differs from the atomistic and platonistic (...)
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  19. added 2019-09-09
    Words by Convention.Gail Leckie & Robert Williams - 2019 - In David Sosa & Ernie Lepore (eds.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Language Volume 1. Oxford, UK: OUP.
    Existing metasemantic projects presuppose that word- (or sentence-) types are part of the non-semantic base. We propose a new strategy: an endogenous account of word types, that is, one where word types are fixed as part of the metasemantics. On this view, it is the conventions of truthfulness and trust that ground not only the meaning of the words (meaning by convention) but also what the word type is of each particular token utterance (words by convention). The same treatment extends (...)
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  20. added 2019-09-04
    The Metaphysics of Words.Balletta Sandro - 2019 - Theoria 85 (1):31-48.
    What are words? How should words be individuated? Such questions set the agenda for the metaphysics of words. Unfortunately, misunderstandings are piling up in this field. Although the discussion between Kaplan, Cappelen, Hawthorne, Lepore and others has given rise to interesting insights into many aspects of words, I contend that the debate is highly compromised by a lack of clarity about the questions in the first place. The purpose of this article is to partially clarify the debate on the metaphysics (...)
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  21. added 2019-09-04
    The Same Name.Mark Sainsbury - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (S2):195-214.
    When are two tokens of a name tokens of the same name? According to this paper, the answer is a matter of the historical connections between the tokens. For each name, there is a unique originating event, and subsequent tokens are tokens of that name only if they derive in an appropriate way from that originating event. The conditions for a token being a token of a given name are distinct from the conditions for preservation of the reference of a (...)
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    What Are Words? Comments on Kaplan , on Hawthorne and Lepore, and on the Issue.Sylvain Bromberger - 2011 - Journal of Philosophy 108 (9):486-503.
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    Computational Modelling of Spoken-Word Recognition Processes: Design Choices and Evaluation.Odette Scharenborg & Lou Boves - 2010 - Radical Philosophy Review of Books 18 (1):136-164.
    Computational modelling has proven to be a valuable approach in developing theories of spoken-word processing. In this paper, we focus on a particular class of theories in which it is assumed that the spoken-word recognition process consists of two consecutive stages, with an `abstract' discrete symbolic representation at the interface between the stages. In evaluating computational models, it is important to bring in independent arguments for the cognitive plausibility of the algorithms that are selected to compute the processes in a (...)
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  24. added 2019-06-06
    Having Words1.Suzy Gordon - 2004 - Angelaki 9 (1):85-95.
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  25. added 2019-06-06
    A Comparison Of Conscious And Automatic Memory Processes For Picture And Word Stimuli: A Process Dissociation Analysis.Dawn Mcbride & Barbara Dosher - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):423-460.
    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate explanations of picture superiority effects previously found for several tasks. In a process dissociation procedure with word stem completion, picture fragment completion, and category production tasks, conscious and automatic memory processes were compared for studied pictures and words with an independent retrieval model and a generate-source model. The predictions of a transfer appropriate processing account of picture superiority were tested and validated in “process pure” latent measures of conscious and unconscious, or automatic and source, (...)
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  26. added 2019-06-06
    L. S. JACYNA, Lost Words: Narratives of Language and the Brain, 1825–1926. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2000. Pp. Ix+241. ISBN 0-691-00413-7. £28.50, $45.00. [REVIEW]Kurt Danziger - 2001 - British Journal for the History of Science 34 (2):233-250.
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  27. added 2019-06-06
    Comme or the Last Word: An Afterword to the Evans/Kates/Lawlor Debate and Correspondence July, 1996.Joshua Kates - 1998 - Philosophy Today 42 (2):211-226.
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    The 'by' word.Michael Wreen - 1988 - Analysis 48 (3):154.
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  29. added 2019-06-06
    „Cultural and Linguistic Factors in Word Formation: An Integrated Approach to the Development of the Suffix “-Age.”.J. Palermo - 1979 - Speculum 54 (2):368-369.
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  30. added 2019-06-06
    The Word of God and the Language of Man: Puritan Semiotics and the Theological and Scientific "Plain Styles" of the Seventeenth Century.Michael Clark - 1978 - Semiotic Scene 2 (2):61-90.
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  31. added 2019-06-06
    Some Obscure Words in the DivyāvadānaSome Obscure Words in the Divyavadana.V. S. Agrawala - 1966 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 86 (2):67.
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  32. added 2019-06-06
    HIXON & COLODNY, Word Ways.D' Johnston - 1940 - Classical Weekly 33 (18):208.
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  33. added 2019-06-06
    A Few Words on Words. van Born - 1939 - Classical Weekly 32 (24):280.
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  34. added 2019-04-02
    Natural Name Theory and Linguistic Kinds.J. T. M. Miller - 2019 - Journal of Philosophy 116 (9):494-508.
    The natural name theory, recently discussed by Johnson (2018), is proposed as an explanation of pure quotation where the quoted term(s) refers to a linguistic object such as in the sentence ‘In the above, ‘bank’ is ambiguous’. After outlining the theory, I raise a problem for the natural name theory. I argue that positing a resemblance relation between the name and the linguistic object it names does not allow us to rule out cases where the natural name fails to resemble (...)
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  35. added 2018-12-07
    On the Individuation of Words.J. T. M. Miller - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-10.
    The idea that two words can be instances of the same word is a central intuition in our conception of language. This fact underlies many of the claims that we make about how we communicate, and how we understand each other. Given this, irrespective of what we think words are, it is common to think that any putative ontology of words, must be able to explain this feature of language. That is, we need to provide criteria of identity for word-types (...)
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  36. added 2018-10-09
    Rejoinder to Miss MacDonald.A. M. MacIver - 1937 - Analysis 4 (6):81 - 88.
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  37. added 2018-10-08
    Originalism About Word Types.Luca Gasparri - 2016 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 5 (2):126-133.
    According to Originalism, word types are non-eternal continuants which are individuated by their causal-historical lineage and have a unique possible time of origination. This view collides with the intuition that individual words can be added to the lexicon of a language at different times, and generates other problematic consequences. The paper shows that such undesired results can be accommodated without abandoning Originalism.
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  38. added 2018-09-19
    An Ontology of Words.Nurbay Irmak - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (5):1139-1158.
    Words are indispensable linguistic tools for beings like us. However, there is not much philosophical work done about what words really are. In this paper, I develop a new ontology for words. I argue that words are abstract artifacts that are created to fulfill various kinds of purposes, and words are abstract in the sense that they are not located in space but they have a beginning and may have an end in time given that certain conditions are met. What (...)
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  39. added 2018-05-14
    Ascetic Eros. Love and Body in Mystical Union: St Teresa of Avila and St Gregory Palamas.Anton Marczyński - manuscript
  40. added 2018-02-17
    Is There Such a Thing as Pragmatics?--Review of Concise Encyclopedia of Pragmatics 2nd Ed (2009).Michael Starks - 2016 - In Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century: Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization-- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 2nd Edition Feb 2018. Michael Starks. pp. 381-399.
    Clearly neither I nor anyone will ever read any substantial part of this massive tome so I will discuss the one article that interests me most and which I think provides the framework necessary for the understanding of all the rest. I refer to the one on Ludwig Wittgenstein (W). Even were I to try to discuss others, we would not get past the first page as all the issues here arise immediately in any discussion of behavior. The differentiation of (...)
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  41. added 2018-02-16
    Words Without Objects: Semantics, Ontology, and Logic for Non-Singularity.Henry Laycock - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    A picture of the world as chiefly one of discrete objects, distributed in space and time, has sometimes seemed compelling. It is however one of the main targets of Henry Laycock's book; for it is seriously incomplete. The picture, he argues, leaves no space for "stuff" like air and water. With discrete objects, we may always ask "how many?," but with stuff the question has to be "how much?" Laycock's fascinating exploration also addresses key logical and linguistic questions about the (...)
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  42. added 2017-11-06
    Chapter 6: Reifying Terms.Friederike Moltmann - 2013 - In Abstract Objects and the Semantics of Natural Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter develops a semantics for 'reifying terms' of the sort 'the proposition that S', 'the fact that S', 'the property of being P', 'the number eight', 'the concept horse', 'the truth value true', 'the kind humane being'. This semantics is developed within the broader perspective of the ontology of natural language involving abstract objects only at its periphery, not its core.
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  43. added 2017-08-21
    Inflectional Identity.Asaf Bachrach & Andrew Nevins (eds.) - 2008 - Oxford University Press UK.
    A recurrent issue in linguistic theory and psychology concerns the cognitive status of memorized lists and their internal structure. In morphological theory, the collections of inflected forms of a given noun, verb, or adjective into inflectional paradigms are thought to constitute one such type of list. This book focuses on the question of which elements in a paradigm can stand in a relation of partial or total phonological identity. Leading scholars consider inflectional identity from a variety of theoretical perspectives, with (...)
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  44. added 2017-07-09
    Words on Psycholinguistics.Wade Munroe - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy 113 (12):593-616.
    David Kaplan’s analysis of the factors that determine what words someone has used in a given utterance requires that a speaker can only use a word through producing an utterance performed with a particular, related intention directed at speaking that word. This account, or any that requires a speaker to have an intention to utter a specific word, proves inconsistent with models of speech planning in psycholinguistics as informed by data on slips-of-the-tongue. Kaplan explicitly aims to formulate a theory of (...)
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  45. added 2017-07-05
    Making New Ideophones in Siwu: Creative Depiction in Conversation.Mark Dingemanse - 2014 - Pragmatics and Society 5 (3):384-405.
    Ideophones are found in many of the world’s languages. Though they are a major word class on a par with nouns and verbs, their origins are ill-understood, and the question of ideophone creation has been a source of controversy. This paper studies ideophone creation in naturally occurring speech. New, unconventionalised ideophones are identified using native speaker judgements, and are studied in context to understand the rules and regularities underlying their production and interpretation. People produce and interpret new ideophones with the (...)
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  46. added 2017-03-01
    Between the Lines of Age: Reflections on the Metaphysics of Words.Peter Alward - 2005 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 86 (2):172–187.
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  47. added 2017-02-15
    Metonymy and Word-Formation Revisited.Laura A. Janda - 2014 - Cognitive Linguistics 25 (2):341-349.
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  48. added 2017-02-15
    From the Viking Word-Hoard: A Dictionary of Scandinavian Words in the Languages of Britain and Ireland. [REVIEW]Paul Byrne - 2011 - The Medieval Review 6.
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  49. added 2017-02-15
    Differences in Cohesiveness Among Different Types of Word-Initial Consonant Clusters.Rebecca Treiman & Carol A. Fowler - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):492-492.
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  50. added 2017-02-15
    Taking Language by the Hand-Reading Handwritten Words.G. C. Oden & J. G. Rueckl - 1986 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (5):344-345.
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