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  1. Really Complex Demonstratives: A Dilemma.Ethan Nowak - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-24.
    I have two aims for the present paper, one narrow and one broad. The narrow aim is to show that a class of data originally described by Lynsey Wolter empirically undermine the leading treatments of complex demonstratives that have been described in the literature. The broader aim of the paper is to show that Wolter demonstratives, as I will call the constructions I focus on, are a threat not just to existing treatments, but to any possible theory that retains the (...)
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  2. Centred Propositions, What is Asserted, and Communication.Jakub Rudnicki - forthcoming - Theoria.
    In recent years there has been a heated debate on how to accommodate John Perry's observations about the essentiality of indexicality into our models of linguistic communication. This article is an attempt at providing a new perspective on this issue. I argue that we should jettison two elements taken for granted by the views I present, and criticize, here: no centring, uncentring, recentring and multicentring. These elements are: (1) taking the asserted content to be a part of the communication process (...)
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  3. Semantic Meaning and Content: The Intractability of Metaphor.Richmond Kwesi - forthcoming - Studia Semiotyczne.
    Davidson argues that metaphorical sentences express no propositional contents other than the explicit literal contents they express. He offers a causal account, on the one hand, as an explanation of the supposed additional content of a metaphor in terms of the effects metaphors have on hearers, and on the other hand, as a reason for the non-propositional nature of the ‘something more’ that a metaphor is alleged to mean. Davidson’s account is meant to restrict the semantic notions of meaning, content, (...)
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  4. Davidson’s Phenomenological Argument Against the Cognitive Claims of Metaphor.Richmond Kwesi - 2019 - Axiomathes 30:1-24.
    In this paper, I take a critical look at the Davidsonian argument that metaphorical sentences do not express propositions because of the phenomenological experience—seeing one thing as another thing—involved in understanding them as metaphors. According to Davidson, seeing-as is not seeing-that. This verdict is aimed at dislodging metaphor from the position of being assessed with the semantic notions of propositions, meaning, and truth. I will argue that the phenomenological or perceptual experience associated with metaphors does not determine the propositional contentfulness (...)
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  5. An Inferential Articulation of Metaphorical Assertions.Richmond Kwesi - 2019 - RIFL 3 (1):116-132.
    This paper argues for the view that metaphors are assertions by locating metaphor within our social discursive practices of asserting and inferring. The literal and the metaphorical differ not in the stating of facts nor in the representation of states of affairs but in the kind of inferential involvements they have and the normative score-keeping practices within which the inferential connections are articulated. This inferentialist based account of metaphor is supplemented by insights from accommodation theory. The account is significant for (...)
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  6. Compositionality in Truth Conditional Pragmatics.Adrian Briciu - 2020 - In Tadeusz Ciecierski & Pawel Grabarczyk (eds.), The Architecture of Context and Context-Sensitivity. New York: Springer. pp. 205-226.
    In the past decade various linguists and philosophers (e.g. Pagin, Pelletier, Recanati, Westerståhl, Lasersohn) have proposed a weakening of the standard interpretation of compositionality for propositional content. Their move is motivated by the desire to accommodate radical forms of context sensitivity within a systematic account of natural languages. In this paper I argue against weakening compositionality in the way proposed by them. I argue that weak compositionality fails to provide some of the expected benefits of compositionality. First, weak compositionality fails (...)
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  7. Semantic Pluralism.Emanuel Viebahn - 2019 - Frankfurt, Germany: Klostermann.
    What is the content of a sentence in context? A proposition, says the standard propositional view accepted in much of semantics. A set of propositions, says the hitherto little-explored view of Semantic Pluralism. The aim of this book is to motivate, develop and defend Semantic Pluralism. To achieve this aim, the book puts forward two arguments against Contextualism, the most popular propositional theory. It spells out two versions of Semantic Pluralism: Flexible Pluralism, which takes many expressions to be context-sensitive, and (...)
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  8. Speaker Meaning and the Interpretation and Construction of Executive Orders.Harold Anthony Lloyd - 2018 - Wake Forest Journal of Law and Policy 8 (2):319-361.
    This Article explores the interpretation and construction of executive orders using as examples President Trump’s two executive orders captioned “Protecting the Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States” (the “Two Executive Orders”). -/- President Trump issued the Two Executive Orders in the context of (among other things) Candidate Trump’s statements such as: “Islam hates us,” and “[W]e can’t allow people coming into this country who have this hatred.” President Trump subsequently provided further context including his tweet about the (...)
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  9. Discourse and Method.Ethan Nowak & Eliot Michaelson - 2020 - Linguistics and Philosophy 43 (2):119-138.
    Stojnić et al. (2013, 2017) argue that the reference of demonstratives is fixed without any contribution from the extra-linguistic context. On their `prominence/coherence' theory, the reference of a demonstrative expression depends only on its context-independent linguistic meaning. Here, we argue that Stojnić et al.’s striking claims can be maintained in only the thinnest technical sense. Instead of eliminating appeals to the extra-linguistic context, we show how the prominence/coherence theory merely suppresses them. Then we ask why one might be tempted to (...)
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  10. Perspectival Thought: A Plea for (Moderate) Relativism.Julien Dutant - 2009 - Disputatio 3 (26):142-149.
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  11. Flexible Contextualism About Deontic Modals: A Puzzle About Information-Sensitivity.J. L. Dowell - 2013 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 56 (2-3):149-178.
    According to a recent challenge to Kratzer's canonical contextualist semantics for deontic modal expressions, no contextualist view can make sense of cases in which such a modal must be information-sensitive in some way. Here I show how Kratzer's semantics is compatible with readings of the targeted sentences that fit with the data. I then outline a general account of how contexts select parameter values for modal expressions and show, in terms of that account, how the needed, contextualist-friendly readings might plausibly (...)
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  12. Contextualism in Philosophy: Knowledge, Meaning and Truth. [REVIEW]Sofia Miguens - 2006 - Disputatio 1 (20):379-386.
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  13. A Purpose for Context Sensitivity.Alex Davies - 2012 - Dissertation, King’s College London
    This thesis has two parts. In Part I there is an argument for the conclusion that a linguistic phenomenon known as (radical) context-sensitivity is to be expected given the limitations of those who use language to reason about empirical states of affairs. The phenomenon arises as a consequence of a process that must be performed to use language to reason validly. In Part II it is explained why the phenomenon, understood in light of the discussion of Part I, does not (...)
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  14. The Problem of Context-Relativity in Semantics.Christopher Gauker - 2016 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 93 (3):329-333.
    This is an introduction to a special issue of Grazer Philosophische Studien on context-relativity in semantics.
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  15. New Horizons for a Theory of Epistemic Modals.Justin Khoo & Jonathan Phillips - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 97 (2):309-324.
    ABSTRACTRecent debate over the semantics and pragmatics of epistemic modals has focused on intuitions about cross-contextual truth-value assessments. In this paper, we advocate a different approach to evaluating theories of epistemic modals. Our strategy focuses on judgments of the incompatibility of two different epistemic possibility claims, or two different truth value assessments of a single epistemic possibility claim. We subject the predictions of existing theories to empirical scrutiny, and argue that existing contextualist and relativist theories are unable to account for (...)
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  16. The Pragmatics of Insensitive Assessments: Understanding The Relativity of Assessments of Judgments of Personal Taste, Epistemic Modals, and More.Gunnar Björnsson & Alexander Almér - 2010 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 6 (1):1-45.
    In assessing the veridicality of utterances, we normally seem to assess the satisfaction of conditions that the speaker had been concerned to get right in making the utterance. However, the debate about assessor-relativism about epistemic modals, predicates of taste, gradable adjectives and conditionals has been largely driven by cases in which seemingly felicitous assessments of utterances are insensitive to aspects of the context of utterance that were highly relevant to the speaker’s choice of words. In this paper, we offer an (...)
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  17. Ciclo de vida de un concepto en el marco de la cognición ad hoc.Jose V. Hernandez-Conde - 2017 - Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 32 (3):271.
    Recently, Casasanto and Lupyan (2015) have asserted that there are no context-independent concepts: all concepts are constructed ad hoc when they are instantiated. My aim is to show that the ad hoc cognition framework can be characterized by a similarity-based theory of concepts, and that two different notions of concept should be distinguished —which may be identified with two distinct stages of their life cycle (storage and instantiation). This approach brings together virtues from opposing views: (a) invariantist: stored concepts are (...)
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  18. XV—Is Context a Problem?Daniel Andler - 1992 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 93 (1):279-296.
  19. Talking with Vultures.Filippo Ferrari & Crispin Wright - 2017 - Mind 126 (503):911-936.
    Relativism and Monadic Truth, by CappelenHerman and HawthorneJohn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Pp. vii + 170.
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  20. The Art of Language and the Linguistic Situation.John Herman Randall Jr - 1963 - Journal of Philosophy 60 (2):29-56.
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  21. This is Not an Indexical Concept! A Note on Robert Hanna's Theory of Natural Kind Concepts.Perini-Santos Ernesto - 2016 - Kant E-Prints 11:46-57.
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  22. IX—Presupposition, Disagreement, and Predicates of Taste.Josh Parsons - 2013 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 113 (2pt2):163-173.
    ABSTRACTI offer a simple‐minded analysis of presupposition in which if a sentence has a presupposition, then both that sentence and its negation logically entail the presupposition; and in which sentence with failed presuppositions are neither true nor false. This account naturally generates an analysis of what it takes to disagree and what it takes to be at fault in a disagreement. A simple generalization gives rise to the possibility of disagreements in which no party is at fault, as is required (...)
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  23. Nonindexical Context-Dependence and the Interpretation as Abduction Approach.Erich Rast - 2011 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 7 (2):259-279.
    Nonindexical Context-Dependence and the Interpretation as Abduction Approach Inclusive nonindexical context-dependence occurs when the preferred interpretation of an utterance implies its lexically-derived meaning. It is argued that the corresponding processes of free or lexically mandated enrichment can be modeled as abductive inference. A form of abduction is implemented in Simple Type Theory on the basis of a notion of plausibility, which is in turn regarded a preference relation over possible worlds. Since a preordering of doxastic alternatives taken for itself only (...)
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  24. Perspectives on Context and Contextualism.Monika Kopytowska & Piotr Stalmaszczyk - 2011 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 7 (2):181-187.
    Perspectives on Context and Contextualism.
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  25. Representations of the Other.Stan Granic - 1995 - Journal of Croatian Studies 39:3-56.
  26. Vague Predicates and Language Games.Rohit Parikh - 1996 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 11 (3):97-107.
    Attempts to give a Logic or Semantics for vague predicates and to defuse the Sorites paradoxes have been largely a failure. We point out yet another problem with these predicates which has not been remarked on before,namely that different people do and must use these predicates in individually different ways. Thus even if there were a semantics for vague predicates, people would not be able to share it. To explain the occurrence nonetheless of these troublesome predicates in language, we propose (...)
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  27. Extensionality, Indirect Contexts and Frege's Hierarchy.Nicholas Koziolek - 2016 - Dialectica 70 (3):431-462.
    It is well known that Frege was an extensionalist, in the following sense: he held that the truth-value of a sentence is always a function only of the references of its parts. One consequence of this view is that expressions occurring in certain linguistic contexts – for example, the that-clauses of propositional attitude ascriptions – do not have their usual references, but refer instead to what are usually their senses. But although a number of philosophers have objected to this result, (...)
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  28. Morality Without Foundations: A Defense of Ethical Contextualism.Mark Van Roojen - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (2):283.
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  29. Shaar Hagolan 1: Neolithic Art in Context.Anna Belfer-Cohen, Yosef Garfinkel & Michele A. Miller - 2003 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 123 (4):872.
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  30. Aesthetics and Ethics: Essays at the Intersection.Jerrold Levinson (ed.) - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    This major collection of essays stands at the border of aesthetics and ethics and deals with charged issues of practical import: art and morality, the ethics of taste, and censorship. As such its potential interest is by no means confined to professional philosophers; it should also appeal to art historians and critics, literary theorists, and students of film. Prominent philosophers in both aesthetics and ethics tackle a wide array of issues. Some of the questions explored in the volume include: Can (...)
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  31. Meaning and Context: A Survey of a Contemporary Debate.Emma Borg - 2009 - In Daniel Whiting (ed.), The Later Wittgenstein on Language. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    relevant to the differences between the two speakings, Odile’s words in the first case said what was false, while in the second case they said what was true. Both spoke of the same state of the world, or the same refrigerator in the same condition. So, in the first case, the words said what is false of a refrigerator with but a milk puddle; in the second case they said what is true of such a refrigerator.
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  32. How Many Meanings for ‘May’? The Case for Modal Polysemy.Barbara Vetter & Emanuel Viebahn - 2016 - Philosophers' Imprint 16.
    The standard Kratzerian analysis of modal auxiliaries, such as ‘may’ and ‘can’, takes them to be univocal and context-sensitive. Our first aim is to argue for an alternative view, on which such expressions are polysemous. Our second aim is to thereby shed light on the distinction between semantic context-sensitivity and polysemy. To achieve these aims, we examine the mechanisms of polysemy and context-sensitivity and provide criteria with which they can be held apart. We apply the criteria to modal auxiliaries and (...)
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  33. Situated Mental Representations.Jérôme Dokic - unknown
    Situation theorists such as John Barwise, John Etchemendy, John Perry and François Recanati have put forward the hypothesis that linguistic representations are situated in the sense that they are true or false only relative to partial situations which are not explicitly represented as such. Following Recanati's lead, I explore this hypothesis with respect to mental representations. First, I introduce the notion of unarticulated constituent, due to John Perry. I suggest that the question of whether there really are such constituents should (...)
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  34. Literalism and Contextualism: Some Varieties.Francois Recanati - 2003 - In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.), Contextualism in Philosophy: Knowledge, Meaning, and Truth. Clarendon Press. pp. 171--196.
    Both Literalism and Contextualism come in many varieties. There are radical, and less radical, versions of both Literalism and Contextualism. Some intermediate positions are mixtures of Literalism and Contextualism. In this paper I describe several literalist positions, several contextualist positions, and a couple of intermediate positions. My aim is to convince the reader that the Literalism/Contextualism controversy is far from being settled. In the first section, I look at the historical development of Literalism. This development reveals a gradual weakening. The (...)
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  35. Wetenschap in Een Regionale Context: Een Reactie.Jan Oosterhaven, Marijn Molema & Korrie Melis - 2013 - Studium : Revue D’Histoire des Sciences Et des Universités 6 (1):34.
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  36. Blasfemie in de Huidige Context. Doomen & van Schaik - 2015 - Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy 44 (1):47-61.
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  37. Epistemic Competence And Contextualist Epistemology: Why Contextualism Is Not Just The Poor Person's Coherentism.David K. Henderson - 1994 - Journal of Philosophy 91 (12):627-649.
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  38. Dependence in Context in Renaissance Florence.Richard C. Trexler.Thomas Kuehn - 1995 - Speculum 70 (3):686-690.
  39. Cupitt's Context.Melvyn Matthews - 1985 - New Blackfriars 66 (786):533-542.
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  40. XIII—Context, Thought and Communication.Hans Kamp - 1985 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 85 (1):239-262.
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  41. Computation of Contextual Word Similarity Exploiting Syntactic and Semantic Structural Co-Occurrences.Kazuo Hara, Ikumi Suzuki, Masashi Shimbo & Yuji Matsumoto - 2013 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 28 (4):379-390.
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  42. Incomplete Descriptions and the Underdetermination Problem.Andrei Moldovan - 2015 - Research in Language 13 (4):352–367.
    The purpose of this paper is to discuss two phenomena related to the semantics of definite descriptions: that of incomplete uses of descriptions, and that of the underdetermination of referential uses of descriptions. The Russellian theorist has a way of accounting for incomplete uses of descriptions by appealing to an account of quantifier domain restriction, such as the one proposed in Stanley and Szabó (2000a). But, I argue, the Russellian is not the only one in a position to appeal to (...)
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  43. Objective Truth in Matters of Taste.Mihnea Capraru - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (7):1755-1777.
    In matters of personal taste, faultless disagreement occurs between people who disagree over what is tasty, fun, etc., in those cases when each of these people seems equally far from the objective truth. Faultless disagreement is often taken as evidence that truth is relative. This article aims to help us avoid the truth-relativist conclusion. The article, however, does not argue directly against relativism; instead, the article defends non-relative truth constructively, aiming to explain faultless disagreement with the resources of semantic contextualism. (...)
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  44. Against the Brogaard-Salerno Stricture.Tristan Haze - 2016 - The Reasoner 10 (4):29-30.
    'It is widely agreed that contraposition, strengthening the antecedent and hypothetical syllogism fail for subjunctive conditionals', write Brogaard and Salerno in (2008: Counterfactuals and context, Analysis 68.1, 39–46). In that article they argue that the putative counterexamples to these principles are actually no threat, on the grounds that they involve a certain kind of illicit contextual shift. -/- Here I argue that this particular kind of contextual shift, if it is properly so called, is not generally illicit, and that therefore (...)
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  45. Die Wahrheit verträgt kein Mehr oder Minder.Geert Keil - 2010 - In Holm Tetens & Stefan Tolksdorf (eds.), In Sprachspiele verstrickt. Festschrift für Hans Julius Schneider. de Gruyter. pp. 81-100.
    1. Einleitung 2. Herausforderungen für das Nichtgraduierbarkeits- und das Bivalenzprinzip 3. Freges Einwand gegen graduale Wahrheit 4. Warum semantische Vagheit keine Wahrheitsgrade erfordert 5. Grenzen ziehen, wo noch keine gezogen sind.
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  46. WAMming Away at Contextualism.Martijn Blaauw - 2003 - SATS 4 (1):88-97.
    Contextualism is a quite popular research program nowadays. In essence, the contextualist holds that the truth conditions of knowledge attributing and of knowledge denying sentences vary in accordance with the context in which the sentences are uttered. This theory is positively motivated by its capability of best explaining certain intuitions we have about knowledge attributions and knowledge denials. In this paper, I will argue that this positive motivation isn't as compelling as the contextualists think it to be. This I will (...)
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  47. Contextualism, Relativism and Ordinary Speakers’ Judgments.Martin Montminy - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 143 (3):341-356.
    Some authors have recently claimed that relativism about knowledge sentences accommodates the context sensitivity of our use of such sentences as well as contextualism, while avoiding the counterintuitive consequences of contextualism regarding our inter-contextual judgments, that is, our judgments about knowledge claims made in other contexts. I argue that relativism, like contextualism, involves an error theory regarding a certain class of inter-contextual judgments.
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  48. Is Contextualism Statable?Michael J. Williams - 2000 - Philosophical Issues 10 (1):80-85.
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  49. The Contextualist Evasion of Epistemology.Hilary Kornblith - 2000 - Philosophical Issues 10 (1):24-32.
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  50. Contextualism and Levels of Scrutiny.Luis M. Valdés-Villanueva - 2000 - Philosophical Issues 10 (1):72-79.
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