Results for 'J. Barker Matthew'

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  1. When Traditional Essentialism Fails.Robert A. Wilson, Matthew J. Barker & Ingo Brigandt - 2007 - Philosophical Topics 35 (1-2):189-215.
    Essentialism is widely regarded as a mistaken view of biological kinds, such as species. After recounting why (sections 2-3), we provide a brief survey of the chief responses to the “death of essentialism” in the philosophy of biology (section 4). We then develop one of these responses, the claim that biological kinds are homeostatic property clusters (sections 5-6) illustrating this view with several novel examples (section 7). Although this view was first expressed 20 years ago, and has received recent discussion (...)
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  2.  82
    Biological Individuals.Robert A. Wilson & Matthew J. Barker - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 1 (1).
    The impressive variation amongst biological individuals generates many complexities in addressing the simple-sounding question what is a biological individual? A distinction between evolutionary and physiological individuals is useful in thinking about biological individuals, as is attention to the kinds of groups, such as superorganisms and species, that have sometimes been thought of as biological individuals. More fully understanding the conceptual space that biological individuals occupy also involves considering a range of other concepts, such as life, reproduction, and agency. There has (...)
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  3.  67
    The Biological Notion of Individual.Robert A. Wilson & Matthew J. Barker - 2013 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Individuals are a prominent part of the biological world. Although biologists and philosophers of biology draw freely on the concept of an individual in articulating both widely accepted and more controversial claims, there has been little explicit work devoted to the biological notion of an individual itself. How should we think about biological individuals? What are the roles that biological individuals play in processes such as natural selection (are genes and groups also units of selection?), speciation (are species individuals?), and (...)
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  4. Well-Being, Disability, and Choosing Children.Matthew J. Barker & Robert A. Wilson - 2019 - Mind 128 (510):305-328.
    The view that it is better for life to be created free of disability is pervasive in both common sense and philosophy. We cast doubt on this view by focusing on an influential line of thinking that manifests it. That thinking begins with a widely-discussed principle, Procreative Beneficence, and draws conclusions about parental choice and disability. After reconstructing two versions of this argument, we critique the first by exploring the relationship between different understandings of well-being and disability, and the second (...)
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  5. Cohesion, Gene Flow, and the Nature of Species.Matthew J. Barker & Robert A. Wilson - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy 107 (2):59-77.
    A far-reaching and influential view in evolutionary biology claims that species are cohesive units held together by gene flow. Biologists have recognized empirical problems facing this view; after sharpening the expression of the view, we present novel conceptual problems for it. At the heart of these problems is a distinction between two importantly different concepts of cohesion, what we call integrative and response cohesion. Acknowledging the distinction problematizes both the explanandum of species cohesion and the explanans of gene flow that (...)
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  6.  18
    Species and Other Evolving Lineages as Feedback Systems.Matthew J. Barker - 2019 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 11.
    Memorably in Nature, Jerry Coyne likened recalcitrant debates between species experts to barnacles on a whale, saying they “retard slightly the progress of the field”. However, experts have been happy to agree on at least this: species are evolving lineages. The importance of that putative fact, and of agreement about it, have been emphasized for over twenty years. Recent review works reaffirm both. But this lends some urgency to the unhappy fact that the exact nature of the implicated evolving lineages (...)
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  7.  99
    Deep Conventionalism About Evolutionary Groups.Matthew J. Barker & Joel D. Velasco - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):971-982.
    We argue for a new conventionalism about many kinds of evolutionary groups, including clades, cohesive units, and populations. This rejects a consensus, which says that given any one of the many legitimate grouping concepts, only objective biological facts determine whether a collection is such a group. Surprisingly, being any one kind of evolutionary group typically depends on which of many incompatible values are taken by suppressed variables. This is a novel pluralism underlying most any one group concept, rather than a (...)
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  8. Specious intrinsicalism.Matthew J. Barker - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (1):73-91.
    Over the last 2,300 years or so, many philosophers have believed that species are individuated by essences that are at least in part intrinsic. Psychologists tell us most folks also believe this view. But most philosophers of biology have abandoned the view, in light of evolutionary conceptions of species. In defiance, Michael Devitt has attempted in this journal to resurrect a version of the view, which he calls Intrinsic Biological Essentialism. I show that his arguments for the resurrection fail, and (...)
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  9. Essentialism.Matthew J. Barker - 2013 - In Byron Kaldis (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences.
  10.  30
    Connecting Applied and Theoretical Bayesian Epistemology: Data Relevance, Pragmatics, and the Legal Case of Sally Clark.Matthew J. Barker - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3).
    In this article applied and theoretical epistemologies benefit each other in a study of the British legal case of R. vs. Clark. Clark's first infant died at 11 weeks of age, in December 1996. About a year later, Clark had a second child. After that child died at eight weeks of age, Clark was tried for murdering both infants. Statisticians and philosophers have disputed how to apply Bayesian analyses to this case, and thereby arrived at different judgments about it. By (...)
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  11.  39
    From Cognition's Location to the Epistemology of its Nature.Matthew J. Barker - 2010 - Cognitive Systems Research 11 (357):366.
    One of the liveliest debates about cognition concerns whether our cognition sometimes extends beyond our brains and bodies. One party says Yes, another No. This paper shows that debate between these parties has been epistemologically confused and requires reorienting. Both parties frequently appeal to empirical considerations and to extra-empirical theoretical virtues to support claims about where cognition is. These things should constrain their claims, but cannot do all the work hoped. This is because of the overlooked fact, uncovered in this (...)
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  12.  79
    The Empirical Inadequacy of Species Cohesion by Gene Flow.Matthew J. Barker - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):654-665.
    This paper brings needed clarity to the influential view that species are cohesive entities held together by gene flow, and then develops an empirical argument against that view: Neglected data suggest gene flow is neither necessary nor sufficient for species cohesion. Implications are discussed. ‡I'm grateful to Rob Wilson, Alex Rueger and Lindley Darden for important comments on earlier drafts, and to Joseph Nagel, Heather Proctor, Ken Bond, members of the DC History and Philosophy of Biology reading group, and audience (...)
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  13.  46
    Eliminative Pluralism and Integrative Alternatives: The Case of Species.Matthew J. Barker - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 70 (3):657-681.
    Pluralisms of various sorts are popular in philosophy of science, including those that imply some scientific concept x should be eliminated from science in favour of a plurality of concepts x1, x2, … xn. This article focuses on influential and representative arguments for such eliminative pluralism about the concept species. The main conclusions are that these arguments fail, that all other extant arguments also fail, and that this reveals a quite general dilemma, one that poses a defeasible presumption against many (...)
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  14. Biological Explanations, Realism, Ontology, and Categories.Matthew J. Barker - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):617-622.
  15. Science and Values.Matthew J. Barker - 2015 - Eugenics Archive.
  16. Philip Cafaro, Thoreau's Living Ethics: Walden and the Pursuit of Virtue Reviewed By.Matthew J. Barker - 2005 - Philosophy in Review 25 (2):89-92.
     
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  17. Reckless Trials? The Criminalization of the Sexual Transmission of HIV.Daniel Monk, Helen Reece, C. Hunt, Tim Reynolds, H. Rishi, A. Buzian, E. Hill, G. Barker, Matthew Weait & J. Lazarus - 2009 - Radical Philosophy 156:2-6.
  18.  69
    "Aristides Quintilianus" On Music in Three Books, by Thomas J. Mathiesen. [REVIEW]Andrew Barker - 1984 - Ancient Philosophy 4 (2):255.
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  19. PATON, H. J. - The Categorical Imperative: A Study in Kant's Moral Philosophy. [REVIEW]H. Barker - 1948 - Mind 57:93.
  20.  10
    Reconstructing Scientific Revolutions: Thomas S. Kuhn's Philosophy of Science by Paul Hoyningen-Huene; Alexander J. Levine. [REVIEW]Peter Barker - 1994 - Isis 85:193-195.
  21.  10
    Matthew Elton, Daniel Dennett: Reconciling Science and Our Self‐Conception. New York: Cambridge University Press , 316 Pp., $65.00. [REVIEW]Gillian Barker - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (3):508-510.
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  22.  16
    Reconstructing Scientific Revolutions: Thomas S. Kuhn's Philosophy of Science. Paul Hoyningen-Huene, Alexander J. Levine. [REVIEW]Peter Barker - 1994 - Isis 85 (1):193-195.
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  23.  11
    Book Review:The Schools of Hellas. Kenneth J. Freeman. [REVIEW]Ernest Barker - 1909 - Ethics 19 (2):243-.
  24.  9
    Six Radical Thinkers. J. MacCunn.E. Barker - 1910 - International Journal of Ethics 20 (2):220-223.
  25.  7
    Procopius. J. A. S. Evans.John W. Barker - 1974 - Speculum 49 (2):330-332.
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  26.  8
    James J Preston Mother Worship: Theme and Variations. Pp. Xxiv+360. £16.80. [REVIEW]Eileen Barker - 1983 - Religious Studies 19 (4):560-561.
  27.  15
    Book Reviews : Interpreting Religious Phenomena: Studies with Reference to the Phenomenology of Religion. By Olaff Pettersson and Hans Akerberg. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell, and Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press Inc., 1981. Pp. 201. $25.00 (Paper. [REVIEW]E. Barker - 1985 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 15 (1):88-89.
  28.  2
    Greek Political Theory: Plato and His Predecessors. By Ernest Barker. Pp. Xiii + 403. London: Methuen and Co., 1918.H. S. J. - 1919 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 39:238-239.
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  29.  6
    The Schools of Hellas. Kenneth J. Freeman.Ernest Barker - 1909 - International Journal of Ethics 19 (2):243-245.
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  30.  5
    Error and Deception in Science: Essays on Biological Aspects of Life. Jean Rostand, A. J. Pomerans.S. F. Barker - 1963 - Philosophy of Science 30 (4):406-407.
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  31.  6
    Book Review:Six Radical Thinkers. J. MacCunn. [REVIEW]E. Barker - 1910 - Ethics 20 (2):220-.
  32.  6
    Literature (J.M.) Foley Ed. A Companion to Ancient Epic. Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell, 2005. Pp. Xxv + 664, Illus. £85. 9781405105248. [REVIEW]Elton Barker - 2007 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 127:155-.
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  33.  10
    Literature (C.J.) Dewald Thucydides' War Narrative. A Structural Study. Berkeley: U. Of California P., 2005. Pp. Xiv + 258. £32.50. 9780520241275. (E.) Greenwood Thucydides and the Shaping of History. (Classical Literature and Society). London: Duckworth, 2006. Pp. Xi + 188, Maps. £16.99. 9780715632833. (P.) Zagorin Thucydides. An Introduction for the Common Reader. Princeton UP, 2005. Pp. Xiii + 190. £15.95. 9780691123516. [REVIEW]Elton Barker - 2007 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 127:165-.
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  34.  5
    The Word of God and the Languages of Man: Interpreting Nature in Early Modern Science and Medicine. Volume 1: Ficino to Descartes by James J. Bono. [REVIEW]Peter Barker - 1999 - Isis 90:117-117.
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  35. BALDWIN, J. M. -Social and Ethical Interpretations in Mental Development.H. Barker - 1898 - Mind 7:435.
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  36. KIRK, G. S., RAVEN, J. E. And SCHOFIELD, M.: "The Presocratic Philosophers". Second Edition. [REVIEW]Andrew Barker - 1985 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36:465.
  37. MUIRHEAD, J. H. - The Platonic Tradition in Anglo-Saxon Philosophy. [REVIEW]H. Barker - 1931 - Mind 40:483.
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  38. MACKENZIE, J. S. - Fundamental Problems of Life. [REVIEW]H. Barker - 1929 - Mind 38:231.
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  39. PATON, H. J. - The Good Will. [REVIEW]H. Barker - 1928 - Mind 37:489.
     
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  40. SCOTT, J. W. -Kant on the Moral Life. [REVIEW]H. Barker - 1925 - Mind 34:375.
     
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  41. Six Radical Thinkers, by J. MacCunn. [REVIEW]E. Barker - 1909 - Ethics 20:220.
  42. The Schools of Hellas, by Kenneth J. Freeman. [REVIEW]Ernest Barker - 1908 - Ethics 19:243.
  43. WEBB, C. C. J. -Kant's Philosophy of Religion. [REVIEW]H. Barker - 1927 - Mind 36:373.
  44. WARD, J. - Essays in Philosophy. [REVIEW]H. Barker - 1927 - Mind 36:478.
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  45.  9
    Environmentally Virtuous Agriculture: How and When External Goods and Humility Ethically Constrain (or Favour) Technology Use.Alana Lettner & Matthew Barker - 2017 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 30 (2):287-309.
    This paper concerns virtue-based ethical principles that bear upon agricultural uses of technologies, such as GM crops and CRISPR crops. It does three things. First, it argues for a new type of virtue ethics approach to such cases. Typical virtue ethics principles are vague and unspecific. These are sometimes useful, but we show how to supplement them with more specific virtue ethics principles that are useful to people working in specific applied domains, where morally relevant domain-specific conditions recur. We do (...)
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  46.  16
    Induction and Hypothesis. A Study of the Logic of Confirmation.R. J. Hirst & S. F. Barker - 1960 - Philosophical Quarterly 10 (41):375.
  47.  11
    Covenons! We Owe Our Store to the Company's Soul..C. J. Yoos ii & J. R. Barker - 2008 - Journal of Human Values 14 (2):141-155.
    We argue that in contemporary business organizations, in which fundamental purpose is construed to be increased value—especially in ‘participative’ organizations, in which non–hierarchal interaction is the norm; and in ‘adaptive’ organizations, in which unpredictable change is the rule—a process of values covenanting will be much more valueable than just espoused values or even values covenants. We propose such a process model for organizational values covenanting and argue that such covenanting reflects an anthropomorphism of the human character development process, validated in (...)
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  48. Is Value Content a Component of Conventional Implicature?Stephen J. Barker - 2000 - Analysis 60 (3):268-279.
  49.  71
    Renewing Meaning: A Speech-Act Theoretic Approach.Stephen J. Barker - 2004 - Clarendon Press.
    This book develops an alternative approach to sentence- and word-meaning, which I dub the speech-act theoretic approach, or STA. Instead of employing the syntactic and semantic forms of modern logic–principally, quantification theory–to construct semantic theories, STA employs speech-act structures. The structures it employs are those postulated by a novel theory of speech-acts. STA develops a compositional semantics in which surface grammar is integrated with semantic interpretation in a way not allowed by standard quantification-based theories. It provides a pragmatic theory of (...)
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  50. Irony and the Dogma of Force and Sense.Stephen J. Barker & Mihaela Popa-Wyatt - 2015 - Analysis 75 (1):9-16.
    Frege’s distinction between force and sense is a central pillar of modern thinking about meaning. This is the idea that a self-standing utterance of a sentence S can be divided into two components. One is the proposition P that S’s linguistic meaning and context associates with it. The other is S’s illocutionary force. The force/sense distinction is associated with another thesis, the embedding principle, that implies that the only content that embeds in compound sentences is propositional content. We argue that (...)
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