Belle van Zuylen dicteerde haar brief aan haar neef toen deze bij haar in Frankrijk verbleef. Zij was al sinds zijn geboorte betrokken geweest bij zijn opvoeding, als raadgeefster van haar broer, de vader van Willem-René. Na de Franse Revolutie kon de jongeman geen aanspraak meer maken op de voorrechten van zijn adellijke geboorte, maar zou zichzelf met werken een plaats in de maatschappij moeten veroveren.
A covariant quantum mechanics for systems of finite-mass particles at finite energy follows from interpreting as Wick-Yukawa fluctuations in particle number the quantum fluctuations which are needed by Phipps to understand measurement theory and by Gyftopoulos to understand the second law of thermodynamics. The dynamical one-variable equations require as input the (N − 1)-particle transition matrices and an N-N vertex or coupling constants at three-particle vertices.
The basic operational devices in a particle theory are detectors which show that a particle is “here, now” rather than “there, then.” Successful operation of these devices requires a limiting velocity. Given auxiliary devices which can change particle velocities in both magnitude and direction, the Lorentz-invariant mass can be defined. The wave-particle duality operationally required to explain the scattering of particles from a diffraction grating then predicts fluctuations in particle number (the Wick-Yukawa mechanism), if we postulate a smallest mass. We (...) show that this suffices to establish the conventional quantum mechanical scattering formalism without postulating either “interactions” or “analyticity.” By introducing the phase change due to external electromagnetic fields, we can describe the auxiliary devices assumed above to an accuracy ofe 2/hc, thus completing the operational definition to that accuracy. (shrink)
Developing countries face numerous barriers to conducting effective and efficient ethics reviews of international collaborative research. In addition to potentially overlooking important scientific and ethical considerations, inadequate or insufficiently trained ethics committees may insist on unwarranted changes to protocols that can impair a study's scientific or ethical validity. Moreover, poorly functioning review systems can impose substantial delays on the commencement of research, which needlessly undermine the development of new interventions for urgent medical needs. In response to these concerns, the Drugs (...) for Neglected Diseases Initiative, an independent nonprofit organization founded by a coalition of public sector and international organizations, developed a mechanism to facilitate more effective and efficient host country ethics review for a study of the use of fexinidazole for the treatment of late stage African Trypanosomiasis. The project involved the implementation of a novel ‘pre-review’ process of ethical oversight, conducted by an ad hoc committee of ethics committee representatives from African and European countries, in collaboration with internationally recognized scientific experts. This article examines the process and outcomes of this collaborative process. (shrink)
:Neuroprosthetic speech devices are an emerging technology that can offer the possibility of communication to those who are unable to speak. Patients with ‘locked in syndrome,’ aphasia, or other such pathologies can use covert speech—vividly imagining saying something without actual vocalization—to trigger neural controlled systems capable of synthesizing the speech they would have spoken, but for their impairment.We provide an analysis of the mechanisms and outputs involved in speech mediated by neuroprosthetic devices. This analysis provides a framework for accounting for (...) the ethical significance of accuracy, control, and pragmatic dimensions of prosthesis-mediated speech. We first examine what it means for the output of the device to be accurate, drawing a distinction between technical accuracy on the one hand and semantic accuracy on the other. These are conceptual notions of accuracy.Both technical and semantic accuracy of the device will be necessary for the user to have sufficient control over the device. Sufficient control is an ethical consideration: we place high value on being able to express ourselves when we want and how we want. Sufficient control of a neural speech prosthesis requires that a speaker can reliably use their speech apparatus as they want to, and can expect their speech to authentically represent them. We draw a distinction between two relevant features which bear on the question of whether the user has sufficient control: voluntariness of the speech and the authenticity of the speech. These can come apart: the user might involuntarily produce an authentic output or might voluntarily produce an inauthentic output. Finally, we consider the role of the interlocutor in interpreting the content and purpose of the communication.These three ethical dimensions raise philosophical questions about the nature of speech, the level of control required for communicative accuracy, and the nature of ‘accuracy’ with respect to both natural and prosthesis-mediated speech. (shrink)
Throughout the biological and biomedical sciences there is a growing need for, prescriptive ‘minimum information’ (MI) checklists specifying the key information to include when reporting experimental results are beginning to find favor with experimentalists, analysts, publishers and funders alike. Such checklists aim to ensure that methods, data, analyses and results are described to a level sufficient to support the unambiguous interpretation, sophisticated search, reanalysis and experimental corroboration and reuse of data sets, facilitating the extraction of maximum value from data sets (...) them. However, such ‘minimum information’ MI checklists are usually developed independently by groups working within representatives of particular biologically- or technologically-delineated domains. Consequently, an overview of the full range of checklists can be difficult to establish without intensive searching, and even tracking thetheir individual evolution of single checklists may be a non-trivial exercise. Checklists are also inevitably partially redundant when measured one against another, and where they overlap is far from straightforward. Furthermore, conflicts in scope and arbitrary decisions on wording and sub-structuring make integration difficult. This presents inhibit their use in combination. Overall, these issues present significant difficulties for the users of checklists, especially those in areas such as systems biology, who routinely combine information from multiple biological domains and technology platforms. To address all of the above, we present MIBBI (Minimum Information for Biological and Biomedical Investigations); a web-based communal resource for such checklists, designed to act as a ‘one-stop shop’ for those exploring the range of extant checklist projects, and to foster collaborative, integrative development and ultimately promote gradual integration of checklists. (shrink)
We here use our nonperturbative, cluster decomposable relativistic scattering formalism to calculate photon–spinor scattering, including the related particle–antiparticle annihilation amplitude. We start from a three-body system in which the unitary pair interactions contain the kinematic possibility of single quantum exchange and the symmetry properties needed to identify and substitute antiparticles for particles. We extract from it a unitary two-particle amplitude for quantum–particle scattering. We verify that we have done this correctly by showing that our calculated photon–spinor amplitude reduces in the (...) weak coupling limit to the usual lowest order, manifestly covariant (QED) result with the correct normalization. That we are able to successfully do this directly demonstrates that renormalizability need not be a fundamental requirement for all physically viable models. (shrink)