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Reasons

Edited by Errol Lord (University of Pennsylvania)
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  1. M. Alvarez (2009). Slaves of the Passions * by Mark Schroeder. Analysis 69 (3):574-576.
    Like much in this book, the title and dust jacket illustration are clever. The first evokes Hume's remark in the Treatise that ‘Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions.’ The second, which represents a cross between a dance-step and a clinch, links up with the title and anticipates an example used throughout the book to support its central claims: that Ronnie, unlike Bradley, has a reason to go to a party – namely, that there will (...)
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  2. Maria Alvarez, Review of Mark Schroeder's 'Slaves of the Passions'. [REVIEW]
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  3. Elizabeth Anderson (1996). Reasons, Attitudes, and Values: Replies to Sturgeon and Piper. Ethics 106 (3):538-554.
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  4. Steven Arkonovich (2007). Goals, Wishes, and Reasons for Action. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 94 (1):161-184.
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  5. Robert Audi (2010). Reasons for Action. In John Skorupski (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Ethics. Routledge.
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  6. Robert Audi (1979). Wants and Intentions in the Explanation of Action. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 9 (3):227–249.
    This paper replies to criticisms of the author's accounts of intending ("journal of philosophy", 1973), wanting ("philosophical studies", 1973), and common-sense explanations of intentional actions; and it extends the nomological theory of intentional action developed in those and other articles. the paper argues, negatively, that theoretical construct accounts of intentional concepts do not entail implausible views of self-knowledge, nor assimilate reasons to mechanical causes; and, positively, that both the way in which reasons render intelligible the actions they explain and the (...)
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  7. Susan E. Babbitt (2005). Reasons, Explanation, and Saramago's Bell. Hypatia 20 (4):144-163.
    : In this essay, I suggest that significant insights of recent feminist philosophy lead, among other things, to the thought that it is not always better to choose than to be compelled to do what one might have done otherwise. However, few feminists, if any, would defend such a suggestion. I ask why it is difficult to consider certain ideas that, while challenging in theory, are, nonetheless, rather unproblematic in practice. I suggest that some questions are not pursued seriously enough (...)
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  8. K. Baier (1953). Good Reasons. Philosophical Studies 4 (1):1 - 15.
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  9. Kurt Baier (1964). Reasons for Doing Something. Journal of Philosophy 61 (6):198-203.
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  10. Jonathan Baron (1986). Tradeoffs Among Reasons for Action. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 16 (2):173–195.
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  11. Daniel Bennett (1965). Action, Reason, and Purpose. Journal of Philosophy 62 (4):85-96.
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  12. Monika Betzler (2009). Expressive Actions. Inquiry 52 (3):272-292.
    Actions expressing emotions (such as caressing the clothes of one's dead friend in grief, or tearing apart a photograph out of jealousy) pose a notorious challenge to action theorists. They are thought to be intentional in that they are in some sense under the agent's control. They are not thought to be done for a reason, however, because they cannot be explained by considerations that favor them from the agent's point of view. This seems to be the case, at least, (...)
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  13. Rüdiger Bittner (2003). Stronger Reasons. In Lukas H. Meyer, Stanley L. Paulson & Thomas W. Pogge (eds.), Rights, Culture and the Law: Themes From the Legal and Political Philosophy of Joseph Raz. Oup Oxford.
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  14. Michael S. Brady (1998). Reasons and Rational Motivational Access. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 79 (2):99–114.
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  15. Talbot Brewer (2002). The Real Problem with Internalism About Reasons. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 32 (4):443 - 473.
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  16. Robert Brown (1963). On Having One's Reasons. Philosophy 38 (145):264 - 271.
    The question of what we are doing when we give an explanation in terms of the agent's reasons for his behaviour is both familiar and complicated. The question I shall raise here, however, is somewhat more limited. It is that of what is involved in making use of such explanations once we have some cursory acquaintance with their structure. In particular, I wish to draw attention to some relations between explanations in terms of intended goals and relations in terms of (...)
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  17. Rüdiger Bubner (1973). Action and Reason. Ethics 83 (3):224-236.
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  18. John V. Canfield (1979). Calculations, Reasons and Causes. In Donald F. Gustafson & Bangs L. Tapscott (eds.), Body, Mind, and Method. Kluwer. 179--195.
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  19. Norman S. Care (1967). On Avowing Reasons. Mind 76 (302):208-216.
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  20. James Cargile (1966). On Having Reasons. Analysis 26 (6):189 - 192.
    Thesis: Even after the observation of the frequent or constant conjunction of objects, we have no reason to draw any inference concerning any object beyond those of which we have had experience. (Hume) Antithesis: A man who knows of at least one case of an X being a Y, and who does not know of any positive reason for thinking that an X might not be a Y, has some reason for thinking that all X's are Y's (p. 81). When (...)
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  21. Ruth Chang (2004). Can Desires Provide Reasons for Action? In R. Jay Wallace (ed.), Reason and Value: Themes From the Moral Philosophy of Joseph Raz. Oxford University Press. 56--90.
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  22. Ruth Chang (2001). Two Conceptions of Reasons for Action. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 62 (2):447–453.
  23. Philip Clark (1997). Practical Steps and Reasons for Action. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 27 (1):17 - 45.
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  24. Rachel Cohon (2000). The Roots of Reasons. Philosophical Review 109 (1):63-85.
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  25. Mary Clayton Coleman (2005). Public Reasons and Practical Solipsism. Southern Journal of Philosophy 43 (3):317-336.
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  26. L. W. Colter (1998). The Sources of Normativity. Review of Metaphysics 51 (4):940-941.
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  27. David Copp (2001). Against Internalism About Reasons—Gert's Rational Options. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 62 (2):455–461.
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  28. Garrett Cullity (2013). The Context-Undermining of Practical Reasons. Ethics 124 (1):8-34.
    Can one fact deprive another of the status of a reason for action—a status the second fact would have had, but for the presence of the first? Claims of this kind are often made, but they face substantial obstacles. This article sets out those obstacles but then argues that there are at least three different ways in which this does happen.
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  29. Giuseppina D'Oro (2004). Collingwood, Psychologism and Internalism. European Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):163–177.
    The paper defends Collingwood's account of rational explanation against two objections. The first is that he psychologizes the concept of practical reason. The second is that he fails to distinguish mere rationalizations from rationalizations that have causal power. I argue that Collingwood endorses a form of nonpsychologizing internalism which rests on the view that the appropriate explanans for actions are neither empirical facts (as externalists claim), nor psychological facts (as some internalists claim), but propositional facts. I then defend this form (...)
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  30. Jonathan Dancy (2012). Response to Mark Schroeder's Slaves of the Passions. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 157 (3):455-462.
    Response to Mark Schroeder’s Slaves of the passions Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11098-010-9656-3 Authors Jonathan Dancy, The University of Reading, Reading, UK Journal Philosophical Studies Online ISSN 1573-0883 Print ISSN 0031-8116.
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  31. Jonathan Dancy (2011). Acting in Ignorance. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (3):345-357.
    This paper considers and rejects the arguments that have been given in favour of the view that one can only act for the reason that p if one knows that p . The paper contrasts it with the view I hold, which is that one can act for the reason that p even if it is not the case that p.
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  32. Jonathan Dancy (2006). Enticing Reasons. In R. Jay Wallace, Philip Pettit, Samuel Scheffler & Michael Smith (eds.), Reason and Value: Themes From the Moral Philosophy of Joseph Raz. Clarendon Press.
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  33. Jonathan Dancy (2004). Two Ways of Explaining Actions. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 55:25-42.
    In my Practical Reality I argued that the reasons for which we act are not to be conceived of as psychological states of ourselves, but as real states of the world. The main reason for saying this was that only thus can we make sense of the idea that it is possible to act for a good reason. The good reasons we have for doing this action rather than that one consist mainly of features of the situations in which we (...)
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  34. Stephen Darwall (2007). How is Moorean Value Related to Reasons for Action? In Susana Nuccetelli & Gary Seay (eds.), Themes From G. E. Moore: New Essays in Epistemology and Ethics. Clarendon Press.
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  35. Sabine A. Döring (2007). Seeing What to Do: Affective Perception and Rational Motivation. Dialectica 61 (3):363-394.
    Theories of practical reason must meet a psychological requirement: they must explain how normative practical reasons can be motivationally efficacious. It would be pointless to claim that we are subject to normative demands of reason, if we were in fact unable to meet those demands. Concerning this requirement to account for the possibility of rational motivation, internalist approaches are distinguished from externalist ones. I defend internalism, whilst rejecting both ways in which the belief‐desire model can be instantiated. Both the Humean (...)
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  36. Fred I. Dretske (1971). Reasons, Knowledge, and Probability. Philosophy of Science 38 (2):216-220.
    Though one believes that P is true, one can have reasons for thinking it false. Yet, it seems that one cannot know that P is true and (still) have reasons for thinking it false. Why is this so? What feature of knowledge (or of reasons) precludes having reasons or evidence to believe (true) what you know to be false? If the connection between reasons (evidence) and what one believes is expressible as a probability relation, it would seem that the only (...)
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  37. Robert Dunn (2010). New Essays on the Explanation of Action, by Constantine Sandis. [REVIEW] Analysis 70 (1):193-196.
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  38. Robert Dunn (1991). Reasons, Attitudes and the Breakdown of Reasons. Philosophia 21 (1-2):53-67.
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  39. Giuseppina D’Oro (2007). Two Dogmas of Contemporary Philosophy of Action. Journal of the Philosophy of History 1 (1):10-24.
    Davidson's seminal essay "Actions, Reasons and Causes" brought about a paradigm shift in the theory of action. Before Davidson the consensus was that the fundamental task of a theory of action was to elucidate the concept of action and event explanation. The debate concerning the nature of action explanation thus took place primarily in the philosophy of history and social science and was focussed on purely methodological issues. After Davidson it has been assumed that the fundamental challenge for the theory (...)
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  40. Donald Evans (1982). Reason and Action — II. Philosophical Investigations 5 (4):279-300.
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  41. Stephen Everson, Motivating Reasons.
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  42. Simon Feldman (2013). Reasons, Motivating and Normative. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  43. David R. Finn (1969). Dretske on Reasons and Justification. Analysis 29 (3):101 - 102.
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  44. Patrick Fleming (2008). On a Purported Principle of Practical Reason. Journal of Philosophical Research 33:143-162.
    A number of philosophers are attracted to the Principle of the Priority of Belief (or PPB) in practical matters. PPB has two parts: (1) it is a principle of practical reason to adjust your desires in accordance with your evaluative beliefs and (2) you should not adjust your evaluative beliefs in accordance with your desires. The central claim of this principle is that beliefs rightly govern desires and that desires have no authority over beliefs. This paper advances conceptual and empiricalarguments (...)
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  45. Richard Foley (1991). ``Evidence and Reasons for Belief&Quot. Analysis 51:98-102.
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  46. Richard Foley (1991). Evidence and Reasons for Belief. Analysis 51 (2):98 - 102.
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  47. J. L. A. García (1985). Morals, Roles and Reasons for Action. Critica 17 (50):29 - 44.
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  48. John Gardner & Timothy Macklem (2004). Reasons. In Jules Coleman & Scott Shapiro (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law. Oup Oxford.
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  49. Bernard Gert (1999). Acting Irrationally Versus Acting Contrary to What is Required by Reason. Journal of Social Philosophy 30 (3):379–386.
  50. Joshua Gert (2009). Desires, Reasons, and Rationality. American Philosophical Quarterly 46 (4):319 - 332.
    Derek Parfit, Joseph Raz, and T. M. S canlon, among others, all hold that reasons for action are provided by facts about those actions. They also hold that the fact that an action would promote or achieve the object of an agent's desire is not one of the relevant facts, and does not provide a reason. Rather, the facts that provide reasons are typically facts about valuable states of affairs that the action is likely to bring about, or valuable properties (...)
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