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  1. Matthias Adam (2007). Two Notions of Scientific Justification. Synthese 158 (1):93 - 108.
    Scientific claims can be assessed epistemically in either of two ways: according to scientific standards, or by means of philosophical arguments such as the no-miracle argument in favor of scientific realism. This paper investigates the basis of this duality of epistemic assessments. It is claimed that the duality rests on two different notions of epistemic justification that are well-known from the debate on internalism and externalism in general epistemology: a deontological and an alethic notion. By discussing the conditions for the (...)
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  2. J. Agassi (1959). Epistemology as an Aid to Science: Comments on Dr Buchdahl's Paper. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 10 (38):135-146.
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  3. Amalia Amaya (2013). Coherence, Evidence, and Legal Proof. Legal Theory 19 (1):1-43.
    The aim of this essay is to develop a coherence theory for the justification of evidentiary judgments in law. The main claim of the coherence theory proposed in this article is that a belief about the events being litigated is justified if and only if it is a belief that an epistemically responsible fact finder might hold by virtue of its coherence in like circumstances. The article argues that this coherentist approach to evidence and legal proof has the resources to (...)
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  4. Amalia Amaya (2008). Justification, Coherence, and Epistemic Responsibility in Legal Fact-Finding. Episteme 5 (3):pp. 306-319.
    This paper argues for a coherentist theory of the justification of evidentiary judgments in law, according to which a hypothesis about the events being litigated is justified if and only if it is such that an epistemically responsible fact-finder might have accepted it as justified by virtue of its coherence in like circumstances. It claims that this version of coherentism has the resources to address a main problem facing coherence theories of evidence and legal proof, namely, the problem of the (...)
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  5. Eckhart Arnold, Tools of Toys? On Specific Challenges for Modeling and the Epistemology of Models and Computer Simulations in the Social Sciences.
    Mathematical models are a well established tool in most natural sciences. Although models have been neglected by the philosophy of science for a long time, their epistemological status as a link between theory and reality is now fairly well understood. However, regarding the epistemological status of mathematical models in the social sciences, there still exists a considerable unclarity. In my paper I argue that this results from specific challenges that mathematical models and especially computer simulations face in the social sciences. (...)
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  6. Sunny Y. Auyang (2009). Knowledge in Science and Engineering. Synthese 168 (3):319 - 331.
    It is now fashionable to say that science and technology are social constructions. This is true, or rather, a truism. Man is a social animal. Man is a linguistic animal, and language is social. Hence all products of human activities and everything that involves language are social constructions. But an assertion that covers everything becomes empty. The constructionist mantra that science or technology is “not a simple input from nature” attacks a straw man, for no one denies the necessity of (...)
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  7. Maryann Ayim & Barbara Houston (1985). The Epistemology of Gender Identity: Implications for Social Policy. Social Theory and Practice 11 (1):25-59.
  8. Marco Antonio Azevedo (2015). Health as a Clinic-Epidemiological Concept. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):365-373.
    I propose a clinic-epidemiological concept of health as the best description of what physicians actually think about health within medical practice. Its aim is to be an alternative to the best approach in the philosophy of medicine about health, Christopher Boorse’s biostatistical theory. Contrary to Boorse’s ‘theoretical’ approach, I propose to take health as a practical clinical concept. In the first two parts of the paper, I will present my complaints against Boorse’s view that health is a theoretical concept, a (...)
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  9. Maria Baghramian (2008). “From Realism Back to Realism”. Philosophical Topics 36 (1):17-35.
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  10. Mark Balaguer (1995). A Platonist Epistemology. Synthese 103 (3):303 - 325.
    A response is given here to Benacerraf's 1973 argument that mathematical platonism is incompatible with a naturalistic epistemology. Unlike almost all previous platonist responses to Benacerraf, the response given here is positive rather than negative; that is, rather than trying to find a problem with Benacerraf's argument, I accept his challenge and meet it head on by constructing an epistemology of abstract (i.e., aspatial and atemporal) mathematical objects. Thus, I show that spatio-temporal creatures like ourselves can attain knowledge about mathematical (...)
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  11. Terence Ball (1980). Dangerous Knowledge? The Self-Subversion of Social Deviance Theory. Inquiry 23 (4):377 – 395.
    Some sociological theories yield self-subverting or 'dangerous' knowledge. The functionalist theory of social deviance provides a case in point. The theory, first formulated by Durkheim, maintains that ostensibly anti-social deviants perform a number of socially indispensable functions. But what would happen if everyone knew this? They would cease to regard deviants as malefactors and would indeed come to esteem them as public benefactors. In that case, however, deviants could no longer perform their proper function. If they are to play the (...)
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  12. Michael D. Barber (1991). Rationality, Relativism and the Human Sciences. Edited by J. Margolis Et Al. Modern Schoolman 68 (2):185-187.
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  13. Matthew J. Barker (2010). From Cognition's Location to the Epistemology of its Nature. Cognitive Systems Research 11 (357):366.
    One of the liveliest debates about cognition concerns whether our cognition sometimes extends beyond our brains and bodies. One party says Yes, another No. This paper shows that debate between these parties has been epistemologically confused and requires reorienting. Both parties frequently appeal to empirical considerations and to extra-empirical theoretical virtues to support claims about where cognition is. These things should constrain their claims, but cannot do all the work hoped. This is because of the overlooked fact, uncovered in this (...)
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  14. H. J. Barr (1964). The Epistemology of Causality From the Point of View of Evolutionary Biology. Philosophy of Science 31 (3):286-288.
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  15. Jeffrey Alan Barrett, Toward a Pragmatic Account of Scientific Knowledge.
    Abstract: C. S. Peirce's psychological analysis of belief, doubt, and inquiry provides insights into the nature of scientific knowledge. These in turn can be used to construct an account of scientific knowledge where the notions of belief, truth, rational justification, and inquiry are determined by the relationships that must hold between these notions. I will describe this account of scientific knowledge and some of the problems it faces. I will also describe the close relationship between pragmatic and naturalized accounts of (...)
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  16. Robert V. Bartlett (1986). Ecological Rationality: Reason and Environmental Policy. Environmental Ethics 8 (3):221-239.
    Ecological rationality is a concept important to most environmental and natural resources policy and to much policy-relevant literature and research. Yet ecological rationality as a distinctive form of reason can only be understood and appreciated in the context of a larger body of work on the general concept of rationality. In particular, Herbert Simon’s differentiation between substantive and proceduralrationality and Paul Diesing’s specification of forms of practical reason are useful tools in mapping and defining ecological rationality. The significance and characteristics (...)
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  17. Robert Bass, Quotidian Medical Epistemology.
    My title may suggest that I will address the activities of medical professionals as they go about their daily business of diagnosis, prescription and treatment. Certainly, that deserves attention, but it is not my target here. My concern is, on the one hand, with typical consumers of health and medical information, and, on the other, with the problems such consumers face in understanding, interpreting and applying the information available to them.
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  18. Prajit K. Basu & S. G. Kulkarni (eds.) (2011). Epistemology, Science, and Cognition. Distributed by D.K. Printworld.
    pt. 1. Epistemology and cognition -- pt. 2. Cognition and science -- pt. 3. Cognition and mind.
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  19. William P. Bechtel (forthcoming). The Epistemology of Evidence in Cognitive Neuroscience. In R. Skipper Jr, C. Allen, R. A. Ankeny, C. F. Craver, L. Darden, G. Mikkelson & and R. Richardson (eds.), Philosophy and the Life Sciences: A Reader. MIT Press
    It is no secret that scientists argue. They argue about theories. But even more, they argue about the evidence for theories. Is the evidence itself trustworthy? This is a bit surprising from the perspective of traditional empiricist accounts of scientific methodology according to which the evidence for scientific theories stems from observation, especially observation with the naked eye. These accounts portray the testing of scientific theories as a matter of comparing the predictions of the theory with the data generated by (...)
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  20. Christina Behme (2014). Assessing Direct and Indirect Evidence in Linguistic Research. Topoi 33 (2):373-383.
    This paper focuses on the linguistic evidence base provided by proponents of conceptualism (e.g., Chomsky) and rational realism (e.g., Katz) and challenges some of the arguments alleging that the evidence allowed by conceptualists is superior to that of rational realists. Three points support this challenge. First, neither conceptualists nor realists are in a position to offer direct evidence. This challenges the conceptualists’ claim that their evidence is inherently superior. Differences between the kinds of available indirect evidence will be discussed. Second, (...)
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  21. Lisa D. Bendixen & Florian C. Feucht (eds.) (2010). Personal Epistemology in the Classroom: Theory, Research, and Implications for Practice. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Part I. Introduction: 1. Personal epistemology in the classroom: a welcome and guide for the reader Florian C. Feucht and Lisa D. Bendixen; Part II. Frameworks and Conceptual Issues: 2. Manifestations of an epistemological belief system in pre-k to 12 classrooms Marlene Schommer-Aikins, Mary Bird, and Linda Bakken; 3. Epistemic climates in elementary classrooms Florian C. Feucht; 4. The integrative model of personal epistemology development: theoretical underpinnings and implications for education Deanna C. Rule and Lisa D. (...)
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  22. Donato Bergandi (2007). Niveaux d'Organisations : Évolution, Écologie Et Transaction. In Thierry Martin (ed.), Le tout et les parties dans les systèmes naturels. Vuibert 47-55.
  23. Donato Bergandi (1993). « Fundamentals of Ecology » de E.P. Odum : Véritable « Approche Holistique » Ou Réductionnisme Masqué ? Bulletin d'Écologie, 24 24 (1):57-68.
  24. Gregor Betz (2009). Underdetermination, Model-Ensembles and Surprises: On the Epistemology of Scenario-Analysis in Climatology. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (1):3 - 21.
    As climate policy decisions are decisions under uncertainty, being based on a range of future climate change scenarios, it becomes a crucial question how to set up this scenario range. Failing to comply with the precautionary principle, the scenario methodology widely used in the Third Assessment Report of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) seems to violate international environmental law, in particular a provision of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. To place climate policy advice on a (...)
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  25. Alexander Bird (2010). The Epistemology of Science—a Bird's-Eye View. Synthese 175 (1):5 - 16.
    In this paper I outline my conception of the epistemology of science, by reference to my published papers, showing how the ideas presented there fit together. In particular I discuss the aim of science, scientific progress, the nature of scientific evidence, the failings of empiricism, inference to the best (or only) explanation, and Kuhnian psychology of discovery. Throughout, I emphasize the significance of the concept of scientific knowledge.
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  26. Jens Christian Bjerring, Jens Ulrik Hansen & Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2014). On the Rationality of Pluralistic Ignorance. Synthese 191 (11):2445-2470.
    Pluralistic ignorance is a socio-psychological phenomenon that involves a systematic discrepancy between people’s private beliefs and public behavior in certain social contexts. Recently, pluralistic ignorance has gained increased attention in formal and social epistemology. But to get clear on what precisely a formal and social epistemological account of pluralistic ignorance should look like, we need answers to at least the following two questions: What exactly is the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance? And can the phenomenon arise among perfectly rational agents? In (...)
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  27. Robyn Bluhm (2010). The Epistemology and Ethics of Chronic Disease Research: Further Lessons From Ecmo. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (2):107-122.
    Robert Truog describes the controversial randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in newborns. Because early results with ECMO indicated that it might be a great advance, saving many lives, Truog argues that ECMO should not have been tested using RCTs, but that a long-term, large-scale observational study of actual clinical practice should have been conducted instead. Central to Truog’s argument, however, is the idea that ECMO is an unusual case. Thus, it is an open question whether (...)
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  28. Robyn Bluhm (2007). Clinical Trials as Nomological Machines: Implications for Evidence-Based Medicine. In Harold Kincaid Jennifer McKitrick (ed.), Establishing Medical Reality: Essays In The Metaphysics And Epistemology Of Biomedical Science. Springer
  29. Charles E. Boklage (1998). On the Position of Statistical Significance in the Epistemology of Experimental Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):195-195.
    Although various statistical measures may have other valid uses, the single purpose served by statistical significance testing in the epistemology of experimental science is as a peremptory rebuttal of one potential alternative interpretation of the data.
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  30. Giacomo Borbone (2009). The Tacit Epistemology of the Gmo Debate: A Case Study. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 19 (4):373-387.
    The issue of biotechnology has been chosen in the MIRRORS project in order to analyze the sometimes uneasy relationship between science and society. After analyzing the situation of biotechnology regarding the GMO debate in Spain, France and Italy during a previous MIRRORS Workshop (This MIRRORS Workshop is entitled European Policies and Knowledge Society, held in Catania on December 15th 2008, during the which the undersigned, Anna Benedetta Francese and Cinzia Rizza discussed three papers about this topic [see the MIRRORS website (...)
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  31. Kirstin Borgerson (2010). Harold Kincaid and Jennifer McKitrick (Eds): Establishing Medical Reality: Essays in the Metaphysics and Epistemology of Biomedical Science. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (2):171-174.
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  32. Kirstin Borgerson, Amending and Defending Critical Contextual Empiricism: Lessons From Medical Research.
    Amending and Defending Critical Contextual Empiricism: Lessons from Medical Research In Science as Social Knowledge (1990) and The Fate of Knowledge (2002), Helen Longino develops a social epistemological theory known as Critical Contextual Empiricism (CCE). While Longino’s work has been generally well-received, there have been a number of criticisms of CCE raised in the philosophical literature in recent years. In this paper I outline the key elements of Longino’s theory and propose several modifications to the four norms offered by the (...)
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  33. Raymond Boudon (1972). On the Underlying Epistemology of Some Sociological Theories and on its Scientific Consequences. Synthese 24 (3-4):410 - 430.
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  34. Pascal Boyer (2000). Natural Epistemology or Evolved Metaphysics? Developmental Evidence for Early-Developed, Intuitive, Category-Specific, Incomplete, and Stubborn Metaphysical Presumptions. Philosophical Psychology 13 (3):277 – 297.
    Cognitive developmental evidence is sometimes conscripted to support ''naturalized epistemology'' arguments to the effect that a general epistemic stance leads children to build theory-like accounts of underlying properties of kinds. A review of the evidence suggests that what prompts conceptual acquisition is not a general epistemic stance but a series of category-specific intuitive principles that constitute an evolved ''natural metaphysics''. This consists in a system of categories and category-specific inferential processes founded on definite biases in prototype formation. Evidence for this (...)
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  35. K. Brad Wray (2010). Introduction: Collective Knowledge and Science. Episteme 7 (3):181-184.
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  36. Edward Branigan (1989). Sound and Epistemology in Film. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 47 (4):311-324.
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  37. Thomas Brante (1989). Empirical and Epistemological Issues in Scientists' Explanations of Scientific Stances: A Critical Synthesis. Social Epistemology 3 (4):281 – 295.
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  38. Philip Brey (2005). The Epistemology and Ontology of Human-Computer Interaction. Minds and Machines 15 (3-4):383-398.
    This paper analyzes epistemological and ontological dimensions of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) through an analysis of the functions of computer systems in relation to their users. It is argued that the primary relation between humans and computer systems has historically been epistemic: computers are used as information-processing and problem-solving tools that extend human cognition, thereby creating hybrid cognitive systems consisting of a human processor and an artificial processor that process information in tandem. In this role, computer systems extend human cognition. Next, (...)
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  39. Søren Brier (2002). Intrasemiotics and Cybersemiotics. Sign Systems Studies 30 (1):113-127.
    The concept of intrasemiotics designates the semiosis of the interpenetration between the biological and psychological autopoietic systems as Luhmann defines them in his theory. Combining a Peircian concept of semiosis with Luhmann’s theory in the framework of biosemiotics makes it possible for us to view the interplay of mind and body as a sign play. The recently suggested term ‘sign play’ pertains to ecosemiotics processes between animals of the same species stretching Wittgenstein’s language concept into the animal world of signs. (...)
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  40. Søren Brier (1997). What is a Possible Ontological and Epistemological Framework for a True Universal 'Information Science'?: The Suggestion of a Cybersemiotics. World Futures 49 (3):287-308.
    (1997). What is a possible ontological and epistemological framework for a true universal ‘information science'?: The suggestion of a cybersemiotics. World Futures: Vol. 49, The Quest for a Unified Theory of Information, pp. 287-308.
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  41. Søren Brier (1995). Genprojektets metafysik-algoritmisk informations materialisme. Philosophia 23 (1-2):157-188.
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  42. Søren Brier & Cliff Joslyn (2013). Information in Biosemiotics: Introduction to the Special Issue. [REVIEW] Biosemiotics 6 (1):1-7.
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  43. Robert Sherrick Brumbaugh, Garth Benson & Bryant Griffith (eds.) (1996). Process, Epistemology, and Education: Recent Work in Educational Process Philosophy: Essays in Honour of Robert S. Brumbaugh. Canadian Scholars' Press.
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  44. Richard M. Burian (2005). The Epistemology of Development, Evolution, and Genetics: Selected Essays. Cambridge University Press.
    The essays in this collection examine developments in three fundamental biological disciplines--embryology, evolutionary biology, and genetics--in conflict with each other for much of the twentieth century. They consider key methodological problems and the difficulty of overcoming them. Richard Burian interweaves historical appreciation of the settings within which scientists work, substantial knowledge of the biological problems at stake and the methodological and philosophical issues faced in integrating biological knowledge drawn from disparate sources.
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  45. Nance Cunningham Butler (1989). Infants, Pain and What Health Care Professionals Should Want to Know Now – an Issue of Epistemology and Ethics. Bioethics 3 (3):181–199.
  46. Donald Thomas Campbell (1988). Methodology and Epistemology for Social Science: Selected Papers. University of Chicago Press.
    Since the 1950s, Donald T. Campbell has been one of the most influential contributors to the methodology of the social sciences. A distinguished psychologist, he has published scores of widely cited journal articles, and two awards, in social psychology and in public policy, have been named in his honor. This book is the first to collect his most significant papers, and it demonstrates the breadth and originality of his work.
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  47. J. Adam Carter & Ben Kotzee (forthcoming). Epistemology of Education. Oxford Bibliographies Online.
  48. Clive Cazeaux (1999). Synaesthesia and Epistemology in Abstract Painting. British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3):241-251.
  49. William J. Clancey (1995). The Learning Process in the Epistemology of Medical Information. Philosophical Explorations.
    Progress in the past few decades in representing medical knowledge, along with the availability of low-cost, powerful workstation computers, has increased interest in encoding all medical records in electronic form. But despite the advantages of legibility, access, and automated performance reviews, computerization may also restrict what can be recorded and rigidify health care interactions with patients. Balancing the beneficial and negative effects requires an understanding of medical practice, especially the difference between human knowledge and today's computer programs. (...)
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  50. Michael Clark (2008). Review of Larry Laudan, Truth, Error, and Criminal Law: An Essay in Legal Epistemology. [REVIEW] Philosophical Books 49 (1):85-86.
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