Results for 'Samuel Waje Kunhiyop'

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  1. African Christian ethics.Samuel Waje Kunhiyop - 2004 - Kaduna, Nigeria: Baraka Press.
    Introduction to the study of African Christian ethics -- Foundations of contemporary African ethics -- Foundations of Western ethics -- Foundations of Christian ethics -- Foundations of African Christian ethics -- Applying African Christian ethics -- Church and state -- War and violence -- Strikes -- Poverty -- Corruption -- Fund-raising -- Procreation and infertility -- Reproductive technologies -- Contraception -- Polygamy -- Domestic violence -- Divorce and remarriage -- Widows and orphans -- Rape -- Incest -- Prostitution and sex (...)
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  2. The hunting of Leviathan: Seventeenth-century reactions to the materialism and moral philosophy of Thomas Hobbes.Samuel I. Mintz - 1962 - Bristol, England: Thoemmes Press.
    Mintz examines seventeenth-century reactions to the political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes.
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  3. AGI and the Knight-Darwin Law: why idealized AGI reproduction requires collaboration.Samuel Alexander - 2020 - Agi.
    Can an AGI create a more intelligent AGI? Under idealized assumptions, for a certain theoretical type of intelligence, our answer is: “Not without outside help”. This is a paper on the mathematical structure of AGI populations when parent AGIs create child AGIs. We argue that such populations satisfy a certain biological law. Motivated by observations of sexual reproduction in seemingly-asexual species, the Knight-Darwin Law states that it is impossible for one organism to asexually produce another, which asexually produces another, and (...)
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  4. Measuring the intelligence of an idealized mechanical knowing agent.Samuel Alexander - 2020 - Lecture Notes in Computer Science 12226.
    We define a notion of the intelligence level of an idealized mechanical knowing agent. This is motivated by efforts within artificial intelligence research to define real-number intelligence levels of compli- cated intelligent systems. Our agents are more idealized, which allows us to define a much simpler measure of intelligence level for them. In short, we define the intelligence level of a mechanical knowing agent to be the supremum of the computable ordinals that have codes the agent knows to be codes (...)
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  5.  16
    SPINOZA & TIME.Samuel Alexander - 2016 - Wentworth Press.
    This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain (...)
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  6. Reward-Punishment Symmetric Universal Intelligence.Samuel Allen Alexander & Marcus Hutter - 2021 - In Samuel Allen Alexander & Marcus Hutter (eds.), AGI.
    Can an agent's intelligence level be negative? We extend the Legg-Hutter agent-environment framework to include punishments and argue for an affirmative answer to that question. We show that if the background encodings and Universal Turing Machine (UTM) admit certain Kolmogorov complexity symmetries, then the resulting Legg-Hutter intelligence measure is symmetric about the origin. In particular, this implies reward-ignoring agents have Legg-Hutter intelligence 0 according to such UTMs.
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  7. Pseudo-visibility: A Game Mechanic Involving Willful Ignorance.Samuel Allen Alexander & Arthur Paul Pedersen - 2022 - FLAIRS-35.
    We present a game mechanic called pseudo-visibility for games inhabited by non-player characters (NPCs) driven by reinforcement learning (RL). NPCs are incentivized to pretend they cannot see pseudo-visible players: the training environment simulates an NPC to determine how the NPC would act if the pseudo-visible player were invisible, and penalizes the NPC for acting differently. NPCs are thereby trained to selectively ignore pseudo-visible players, except when they judge that the reaction penalty is an acceptable tradeoff (e.g., a guard might accept (...)
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  8. The Archimedean trap: Why traditional reinforcement learning will probably not yield AGI.Samuel Allen Alexander - 2020 - Journal of Artificial General Intelligence 11 (1):70-85.
    After generalizing the Archimedean property of real numbers in such a way as to make it adaptable to non-numeric structures, we demonstrate that the real numbers cannot be used to accurately measure non-Archimedean structures. We argue that, since an agent with Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) should have no problem engaging in tasks that inherently involve non-Archimedean rewards, and since traditional reinforcement learning rewards are real numbers, therefore traditional reinforcement learning probably will not lead to AGI. We indicate two possible ways (...)
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  9.  23
    Benjamin's -abilities.Samuel Weber - 2008 - Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Edited by Walter Benjamin.
    “There is no world of thought that is not a world of language,” Walter Benjamin remarked, “and one only sees in the world what is preconditioned by ...
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  10. Aristotle’s Metaphysics Z as First Philosophy.Samuel Meister - 2023 - Phronesis 68 (1):78–116.
    Discussions of Aristotle’s Metaphysics Z tend to treat it either as an independent treatise on substance and essence or as preliminary to the main conclusions of the Metaphysics. I argue instead that Z is central to Aristotle’s project of first philosophy in the Metaphysics: the first philosopher seeks the first causes of being qua being, especially substances, and in Z, Aristotle establishes that essences or forms are the first causes of being of perceptible substances. I also argue that the centrality (...)
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  11. The Basis of Realism.Samuel Alexander - 1914 - [Oxford University Press].
  12. The Promise of a New Past.Samuel Lebens & Tyron Goldschmidt - 2017 - Philosophers' Imprint 17:1-25.
    In light of Jewish tradition and the metaphysics of time, we argue that God can and will change the past. The argument makes for a new answer to the problem of evil and a new theory of atonement.
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  13. On not getting out of bed.Samuel Asarnow - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (6):1639-1666.
    This morning I intended to get out of bed when my alarm went off. Hearing my alarm, I formed the intention to get up now. Yet, for a time, I remained in bed, irrationally lazy. It seems I irrationally failed to execute my intention. Such cases of execution failure pose a challenge for Mentalists about rationality, who believe that facts about rationality supervene on facts about the mind. For, this morning, my mind was in order; it was my action that (...)
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  14.  37
    Beauty and other forms of value.Samuel Alexander - 1933 - New York,: Crowell.
  15. Measuring Intelligence and Growth Rate: Variations on Hibbard's Intelligence Measure.Samuel Alexander & Bill Hibbard - 2021 - Journal of Artificial General Intelligence 12 (1):1-25.
    In 2011, Hibbard suggested an intelligence measure for agents who compete in an adversarial sequence prediction game. We argue that Hibbard’s idea should actually be considered as two separate ideas: first, that the intelligence of such agents can be measured based on the growth rates of the runtimes of the competitors that they defeat; and second, one specific (somewhat arbitrary) method for measuring said growth rates. Whereas Hibbard’s intelligence measure is based on the latter growth-rate-measuring method, we survey other methods (...)
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  16. Strengthening Consistency Results in Modal Logic.Samuel Alexander & Arthur Paul Pedersen - 2023 - Tark.
    A fundamental question asked in modal logic is whether a given theory is consistent. But consistent with what? A typical way to address this question identifies a choice of background knowledge axioms (say, S4, D, etc.) and then shows the assumptions codified by the theory in question to be consistent with those background axioms. But determining the specific choice and division of background axioms is, at least sometimes, little more than tradition. This paper introduces generic theories for propositional modal logic (...)
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  17.  17
    The Lessons of Rancière.Samuel A. Chambers - 2013 - Oup Usa.
    What if "liberal democracy" were a contradiction in terms? This book distinguishes liberalism from democracy to defend a Rancirean vision of impure politics. Disclosing Rancire's refusal of ontology as political, The Lessons of Rancire enacts a critical theory beyond unmasking and a democratic politics beyond liberalism.
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  18.  13
    Practical Ethics for Psychologists: A Positive Approach.Samuel Knapp - 2012 - Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Edited by Leon VandeCreek.
    Guided by the APA Ethics Code and social justice, this book helps psychologists solve ethical dilemmas while empowering those impacted by their work.
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  19. Universal Agent Mixtures and the Geometry of Intelligence.Samuel Allen Alexander, David Quarel, Len Du & Marcus Hutter - 2023 - Aistats.
    Inspired by recent progress in multi-agent Reinforcement Learning (RL), in this work we examine the collective intelligent behaviour of theoretical universal agents by introducing a weighted mixture operation. Given a weighted set of agents, their weighted mixture is a new agent whose expected total reward in any environment is the corresponding weighted average of the original agents' expected total rewards in that environment. Thus, if RL agent intelligence is quantified in terms of performance across environments, the weighted mixture's intelligence is (...)
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  20. Attributives and their Modifiers.Samuel C. Wheeler - 1972 - Noûs 6 (4):310-334.
     
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  21. Big-Oh Notations, Elections, and Hyperreal Numbers: A Socratic Dialogue.Samuel Alexander & Bryan Dawson - 2023 - Proceedings of the ACMS 23.
    We provide an intuitive motivation for the hyperreal numbers via electoral axioms. We do so in the form of a Socratic dialogue, in which Protagoras suggests replacing big-oh complexity classes by real numbers, and Socrates asks some troubling questions about what would happen if one tried to do that. The dialogue is followed by an appendix containing additional commentary and a more formal proof.
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  22.  25
    Defending Wittgenstein’s Remarks on Cantor from Putnam.Samuel J. Wheeler - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 45 (3):320-333.
    Philosophical Investigations, Volume 45, Issue 3, Page 320-333, July 2022.
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  23. Sympathy in Hume and Smith: a Contrast, Critique, and Reconstruction.Samuel Fleischacker - 2012 - In Christel Fricke & Dagfinn Føllesdal (eds.), Intersubjectivity and Objectivity in Adam Smith and Edmund Husserl: A Collection of Essays. Ontos. pp. 273-311.
  24.  32
    Between Realism and Relativism: Moral Certainty as a Third Option.Samuel Laves - 2020 - Philosophical Forum 51 (3):297-313.
    This paper is an attempt to lay out a meta‐ethical position that is inspired by the framework of Wittgenstein's later philosophy. To achieve this goal, this paper is divided into two parts. First, I explore recent attempts to tie Wittgenstein's epistemology in On Certainty to moral epistemology. I argue that there can be a meaningful parallel drawn between the epistemic certainties discussed in On Certainty and what I consider to be moral certainties. These moral certainties are unjustified fundamental moral attitudes (...)
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  25.  22
    Sometimes More is Too Much: A Rejoinder to the Commentaries on Greiff et al. (2015).Samuel Greiff, Matthias Stadler, Philipp Sonnleitner, Christian Wolff & Romain Martin - unknown
    In this rejoinder, we respond to two commentaries on the study by Greiff, S.; Stadler, M.; Sonnleitner, P.; Wolff, C.; Martin, R. Sometimes less is more: Comparing the validity of complex problem solving measures. Intelligence 2015, 50, 100–113. The study was the first to address the important comparison between a classical measure of complex problem solving (CPS) and the more recent multiple complex systems (MCS) approach regarding their validity. In the study, we investigated the relations between one classical microworld as (...)
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  26. Introdução ao infinitismo na epistemologia : uma resposta ao Trilema de Agripa.Samuel Cibils - 2023 - Dissertation, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande Do Sul
    Skepticism in epistemology refers to the supposedly irrational attitude of suspending judgment about all beliefs, particularly those taken for granted. The skeptical attitude presses philosophy to investigate the conditions under which knowledge and justification rather than accidental truths can be arrived at. In the first chapter, we will investigate how to construct a form of radical skepticism known as Pyrrhonian skepticism; we will see how Agrippa's Trilemma builds three ways of skeptical defense to object to three possible conditions in the (...)
     
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  27.  73
    Judith Butler and political theory: troubling politics.Samuel Allen Chambers - 2008 - New York: Routledge. Edited by Terrell Carver.
  28. A type of simulation which some experimental evidence suggests we don't live in.Samuel Alexander - 2018 - The Reasoner 12 (7):56-56.
    Do we live in a computer simulation? I will present an argument that the results of a certain experiment constitute empirical evidence that we do not live in, at least, one type of simulation. The type of simulation ruled out is very specific. Perhaps that is the price one must pay to make any kind of Popperian progress.
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  29. A demonstration of the being and attributes of God.Samuel Clarke - 2007 - In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late modern philosophy: essential readings with commentary. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  30. Why Natural Moral Certainties Exist: A Response to Fairhurst.Samuel Laves - 2020 - Ethical Perspectives 27 (3):297-315.
    Recently there has been a growing literature on the concept of moral certainty. This concept, which is inspired by Wittgenstein’s reflections in On Certainty, is most prominently argued for by Nigel Pleasants. Pleasants contends that there is a meaningful parallel to be drawn between the epistemic certainties discussed by Wittgenstein and moral certainties. These moral certainties are unreflective, non-propositional, and show in the ways that we act. In addition, these certainties cannot be doubted by a reasonable moral agent. In a (...)
     
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  31. A purely epistemological version of Fitch's Paradox.Samuel Alexander - 2012 - The Reasoner 6 (4):59-60.
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  32.  64
    Radical Pragmatism in the Ethics of Belief.Samuel Montplaisir - 2020 - Philosophia 49 (1):403-419.
    In this paper, I defend the view that only practical reasons are normative reasons for belief. This requires viewing beliefs as the predictable results of our actions. I will show how this fits with our intuitions about mental autonomy. The remainder of the paper consists in a defense against a series of objections that may be expected against this position. The paper concludes with a metaphilosophical explanation about our conflicting intuitions regarding the normativity of rationality.
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  33. Hegel’s Idealist Reading of Spinoza.Samuel Newlands - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (2):100-108.
    In this two-part series, I explore some of the most important and influential interpretations of Spinoza as an idealist. In this first part, I examine Hegel’s case for interpreting Spinoza as a kind of frustrated idealist and show how doing so raises fresh interpretative challenges for Spinoza’s contemporary readers.
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  34.  11
    Bearing Society in Mind: Theories and Politics of the Social Formation.Samuel Allen Chambers - 2014 - New York: Rowman & Littlefield International.
    Bearing Society in Mind disrupts the disciplinary boundaries of economic, political and cultural theory by exploring the theory and politics of the social formation.
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  35.  61
    Would two dimensions be world enough for spacetime?Samuel C. Fletcher, J. B. Manchak, Mike D. Schneider & James Owen Weatherall - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 63:100-113.
    We consider various curious features of general relativity, and relativistic field theory, in two spacetime dimensions. In particular, we discuss: the vanishing of the Einstein tensor; the failure of an initial-value formulation for vacuum spacetimes; the status of singularity theorems; the non-existence of a Newtonian limit; the status of the cosmological constant; and the character of matter fields, including perfect fluids and electromagnetic fields. We conclude with a discussion of what constrains our understanding of physics in different dimensions.
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  36.  87
    Coincidence and principles of composition.Samuel Levey - 1997 - Analysis 57 (1):1–10.
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  37. Socialisms.Samuel Arnold - 2022 - In Chris Melenovsky (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy, Politics, and Economics. Routledge.
     
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  38. Another Kind of Spinozistic Monism.Samuel Newlands - 2010 - Noûs 44 (3):469-502.
    I argue that Spinoza endorses "conceptual dependence monism," the thesis that all forms of metaphysical dependence (such as causation, inherence, and existential dependence) are conceptual in kind. In the course of explaining the view, I further argue that it is actually presupposed in the proof for his more famed substance monism. Conceptual dependence monism also illuminates several of Spinoza’s most striking metaphysical views, including the intensionality of causal contexts, parallelism, metaphysical perfection, and explanatory rationalism. I also argue that this priority (...)
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  39. Mathematical shortcomings in a simulated universe.Samuel Alexander - 2018 - The Reasoner 12 (9):71-72.
    I present an argument that for any computer-simulated civilization we design, the mathematical knowledge recorded by that civilization has one of two limitations. It is untrustworthy, or it is weaker than our own mathematical knowledge. This is paradoxical because it seems that nothing prevents us from building in all sorts of advantages for the inhabitants of said simulation.
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  40.  7
    Neo-Davidsonian Metaphysics: From the True to the Good.Samuel C. Wheeler - 2013 - New York, New York: Routledge.
    Much contemporary metaphysics, moved by an apparent necessity to take reality to consist of given beings and properties, presents us with what appear to be deep problems requiring radical changes in the common sense conception of persons and the world. Contemporary meta-ethics ignores questions about logical form and formulates questions in ways that make the possibility of correct value judgments mysterious. In this book, Wheeler argues that given a Davidsonian understanding of truth, predication, and interpretation, and given a relativised version (...)
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  41. Arms as Insurance.Samuel C. Wheeler - 1999 - Public Affairs Quarterly 13 (2):111-129.
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  42.  87
    Self-Defense: Rights and Coerced Risk-Acceptance.Samuel C. Wheeler - 1997 - Public Affairs Quarterly 11 (4):431-443.
  43.  9
    Ethical dilemmas in psychotherapy: positive approaches to decision making.Samuel Knapp - 2015 - Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Edited by Michael C. Gottlieb & Mitchell M. Handelsman.
    New and experienced psychotherapists alike can find themselves overwhelmed by an ethical quandary where there doesn't seem to be an easy solution. This book presents positive ethics as a means to overcome such ethical challenges. The positive approach focuses on not just avoiding negative consequences, but reaching the best possible outcomes for both the psychotherapist and the client. The authors outline a clear decision-making process that is based on three practical strategies: the ethics acculturation model to help therapists incorporate personal (...)
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  44. Legg-Hutter universal intelligence implies classical music is better than pop music for intellectual training.Samuel Alexander - 2019 - The Reasoner 13 (11):71-72.
    In their thought-provoking paper, Legg and Hutter consider a certain abstrac- tion of an intelligent agent, and define a universal intelligence measure, which assigns every such agent a numerical intelligence rating. We will briefly summarize Legg and Hutter’s paper, and then give a tongue-in-cheek argument that if one’s goal is to become more intelligent by cultivating music appreciation, then it is bet- ter to use classical music (such as Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven) than to use more recent pop music. The (...)
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  45.  23
    Targets of opportunity: on the militarization of thinking.Samuel Weber - 2005 - New York: Fordham University Press.
    The title of this book echoes a phrase used by the Washington Post to describethe American attempt to kill Saddam Hussein at the start of the war againstIraq. Its theme is the notion of targeting (skopos) as the name of an intentionalstructure in which the subject tries to confirm its invulnerability by aiming todestroy a target. At the center of the first chapter is Odysseus’s killing of the suitors;the second concerns Carl Schmitt’s Roman Catholicism and Political Form; thethird and fourth (...)
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  46. The Hunting of Leviathan: Seventeenth-Century Reactions to the Materialism and Moral Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes.Samuel I. Mintz - 1964 - Science and Society 28 (2):240-242.
     
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  47.  63
    Megarian paradoxes as Eleatic arguments.Samuel C. Wheeler - 1983 - American Philosophical Quarterly 20 (3):287-295.
    I argue that the paradoxes attributed to the Megarians, namely the Liar, the Sorites, presupposition ("Have you stopped beating your father,") and failure of substitution of co-referential terms in psychological verbs ("The Electra") were intended to be reasons to accept Parmenides view that non-being is an incoherent notion and that there is exactly One Being. That is, Eubulides and others were akin to Zeno, in indirectly supporting Parmenidean monism.
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  48.  20
    No Community without Socialism.Samuel Arnold - 2020 - Philosophical Topics 48 (2):1-21.
    As G. A. Cohen’s camping trip argument shows, community is an important value. But is there anything particularly socialist about it? Critics suggest not. Jason Brennan argues that we don’t need socialist institutions to secure community; capitalist ones will do just fine. Louis-Philippe Hodgson argues, in a similar spirit, that we don’t need explicitly socialist principles to secure community; standard-issue liberal egalitarian ones (like Rawls’s) suffice. But these critics are mistaken. Pace Brennan, I show that capitalism inevitably runs roughshod over (...)
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  49. On Unity and Simple Substance in Leibniz.Samuel Levey - 2007 - The Leibniz Review 17:61-106.
    What is Leibniz’s argument for simple substances? I propose that it is an extension of his prior argument for incorporeal forms as principles of unity for individual corporeal substances. The extension involves seeing the hylomorphic analysis of corporeal substances as implying a resolution of matter into forms, and this seems to demand that forms, which are themselves simple, be the only elements of things. The argument for simples thus presupposes the existence of corporeal substances as a key premise. Yet a (...)
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  50. Realism and the Value of Explanation.Samuel John Andrews - 2023 - Philosophical Quarterly 73 (4):1305–1314.
    Dasgupta poses a serious challenge to realism about natural properties. He argues that there is no acceptable explanation of why natural properties deserve the value realists assign to them and are consequently absent of value. In response, this paper defines and defends an alternative non-explanatory account of normativity compatible with realism. Unlike Lewis and Sider, who believe it is sufficient to defend realism solely on realist terms, I engage with the challenge on unfriendly grounds by revealing a tu quoque. Dasgupta (...)
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