About this topic
Summary Unsurprisingly, many applied ethicists will recognize the importance of toleration.  We can ask, after all, whether acts like aborting a fetus are moral and we can ask if those same acts should be tolerated, whether or not they are moral.  More surprisingly, perhaps, is the extensive discussions about  toleration in education.  Both of these topics are covered by the pieces in this subcategory.
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  1. The Need for and Inevitability of Educational Intolerance.B. Suttle - forthcoming - Philosophy of Education.
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  2. Ethics for Fallible People.Chelsea Rosenthal - 2019 - Dissertation, New York University
    Our moral judgments are fallible, and we’re often uncertain what morality requires. I argue that, in the face of these challenges, it’s not only rational to use effective procedures for trying to be moral – we have a moral responsibility to do so, and being reckless when navigating moral uncertainty, is, itself, a form of moral wrongdoing. These strategic requirements present a large class of under-explored norms of morality. I use these norms to address moral and social questions concerning, for (...)
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  3. The Contours of Toleration: A Relational Account.Kok-Chor Tan - 2018 - In Nurdane Şimsek, Stephen Snyder & Manuel Knoll (eds.), New Perspectives on Distributive Justice: Deep Disagreements, Pluralism, and the Problem of Consensus. De Gruyter. pp. 385-402.
    I outline what I call a relational account of toleration. This relational account helps explain the apparent paradox of toleration in that it involves two competing moral stances, of acceptance and disapproval, towards the tolerated. It also helps clarify the way toleration is a normative ideal, and not a position one is forced into out of the practical need to accommodate or accept. Specifically, toleration is recommended out of respect for that which the tolerant agent also disapproves of. This combination (...)
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  4. Psychological Harm and Free Speech on Campus.Andrew Jason Cohen - 2017 - Society 2 (54):320-325.
    The basic idea of this essay is that it is a mistake to deny the existence of psychological harms or that such harms may justify limiting certain sorts of speech acts in certain sorts of circumstances, but that such circumstances are not part of the paradigmatic college environment.
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  5. Religious and Political Authority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Jon Mahoney & Kamel Alboaouh - 2017 - Manas Journal of Social Science 6 (02):241-257.
    Alfred Stepan’s “twin-tolerations” thesis (2000) is a model for explaining different ways that religious and political authority come to be reconciled. In this paper, we investigate some obstacles and challenges to realizing a reconciliation between religious and political authority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) that might result in a transition away from a theocratic monarchy to a more consultative form of political authority. Whereas most analyses of religion and politics in KSA focus on geopolitics, the rentier state model, (...)
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  6. До питання про мовну толерантність (результати опитування, проведеного у Вінницькій області).Taras Tkachuk - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:68-76.
    Стаття продовжує цикл опитувань, метою яких було з’ясування факторів впливу на вибір мови в білінгвальному середовищі. В аналізованому опитуванні, проведеному у Вінниці та Вінницькій області, охоплено 560 старшокласників віком 14–17 років. Результати анкетування дали змогу зробити висновки про психологічні чинники, що впливають на респондента, який перебуває в двомовному середовищі.
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  7. Les signes religieux, la laïcité et la mentalité médiévale : du débat public sur la Charte des valeurs.Arash Abizadeh - 2016 - In Alain-G. Gagnon & Jean-Charles St-Louis (eds.), Les Conditions du dialogue au Québec : Laïcité, réciprocité, pluralisme. Montreal: Québec Amérique. pp. 29-41.
    Our public debate over secularism has suffered from a kind of amnesia about the historical genesis of the modern, secular, and tolerant state. The transition away from the highly intolerant and persecutory regimes of late-medieval and early-modern Europe was greatly facilitated by four important developments. First, Europeans learned that social order and cohesion are threatened less by diversity than by intolerance of diversity. Second, the traditionally paternalist vision of the state’s role was called into question by a new valuation of (...)
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  8. Fighting Status Inequalities: Non-Domination Vs Non-Interference.Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen & Xavier Landes - 2016 - Public Health Ethics 9 (2):155-163.
    Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job as a theoretical foil for this as compared to a liberal notion of non-interference. The article concludes that there is a prima facie case for incorporating non-dominance into our thinking about public health, but that (...)
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  9. The Social Benefits of Protecting Hate Speech and Exposing Sources of Prejudice.Marcus Schulzke - 2016 - Res Publica 22 (2):225-242.
    I argue that there are strong consequentialist grounds for thinking that hate speech should be legally protected. The protection of hate speech allows those who are hateful to make their beliefs public, thereby exposing prejudices that might otherwise be suppressed to evaluation by other members of society. This greater transparency about prejudices has two social benefits. First, it facilitates social trust by making it easier to discover who holds beliefs that should exclude them from positions of authority, responsibility, and influence. (...)
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  10. Just War and Robots’ Killings.Thomas W. Simpson & Vincent C. Müller - 2016 - Philosophical Quarterly 66 (263):302-22.
    May lethal autonomous weapons systems—‘killer robots ’—be used in war? The majority of writers argue against their use, and those who have argued in favour have done so on a consequentialist basis. We defend the moral permissibility of killer robots, but on the basis of the non-aggregative structure of right assumed by Just War theory. This is necessary because the most important argument against killer robots, the responsibility trilemma proposed by Rob Sparrow, makes the same assumptions. We show that the (...)
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  11. The Tolerance of Ritual Male Infant Circumcision.Gregory L. Bock - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (2):48-49.
    Jacobs and Arora (2015) argue convincingly for the permissibility of ritual male infant circumcision in general, but they allow for the state to prohibit the practice if it violates local norms. They say that such a ban would be permissible unless it amounts to unethical discrimination. In other words, if male infant circumcision is outlawed, then, as they say, “the same state should protect all children from all unnecessary procedures and practices that are equally uncomfortable and unsafe.” While such an (...)
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  12. Zero Tolerance Against Patriarchal Norms? A Cross-Sectional Study of Swedish Physicians' Attitudes Towards Young Females Requesting Virginity Certificates or Hymen Restoration.Niklas Juth & Niels Lynöe - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (3):215-219.
  13. Attitudinal Analyses of Toleration and Respect and the Problem of Institutional Applicability.Sune Lægaard - 2015 - European Journal of Philosophy 23 (4):1064-1081.
    Toleration and respect are types of relations between different agents. The standard analyses of toleration and respect are attitudinal; toleration and respect require subjects to have appropriate types of attitudes towards the objects of toleration or respect. The paper investigates whether states can sensibly be described as tolerant or respectful in ways theoretically relevantly similar to the standard analyses. This is a descriptive question about the applicability of concepts rather than a normative question about whether, when and why states should (...)
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  14. Multiculturalism as a Strategy for National Competitiveness: The Case for Canada and Australia.Isabel Metz & Eddy S. Ng - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (2):253-266.
    In this paper, we propose that multiculturalism can serve as an effective public policy tool to enhance a nation’s competitiveness, in an era characterized by financial crises, globalization, immigration, and changing demographics. Specifically, we articulate how multiculturalism and strategic tolerance of differences can promote socioeconomic mobility for individuals, and act as the “glue” that binds immigrants and host country nationals together. We also demonstrate how multiculturalism can attract skilled talents necessary for nation building. Immigrants who retain their ties with their (...)
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  15. Confidence, Tolerance, and Allowance in Biological Engineering: The Nuts and Bolts of Living Things.Manuel Porcar, Antoine Danchin & Víctor de Lorenzo - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (1):95-102.
    The emphasis of systems and synthetic biology on quantitative understanding of biological objects and their eventual re-design has raised the question of whether description and construction standards that are commonplace in electric and mechanical engineering are applicable to live systems. The tuning of genetic devices to deliver a given activity is generally context-dependent, thereby undermining the re-usability of parts, and predictability of function, necessary for manufacturing new biological objects. Tolerance and allowance are key aspects of standardization that need to be (...)
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  16. Is Tolerance Really Teaching?Lisa G. Rapaport - 2015 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38.
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  17. Toleration, by Andrew Jason Cohen: Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014, Pp. 176, £15.99 , £45.Peter Balint - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (4):816-817.
  18. How Groups Matter: Challenges of Toleration in Pluralistic Societies.Magali Bessone, Gideon Calder & Federico Zuolo - 2014 - Routledge.
    When groups feature in political philosophy, it is usually in one of three contexts: the redressing of past or current injustices suffered by ethnic or cultural minorities; the nature and scope of group rights; and questions around how institutions are supposed to treat a certain specific identity/cultural/ethnic group. What is missing from these debates is a comprehensive analysis of groups as both agents and objects of social policies. While this has been subject to much scrutiny by sociologists and social psychologists, (...)
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  19. Toleration.Andrew Jason Cohen - 2014 - Polity.
    In this engaging and comprehensive introduction to the topic of toleration, Andrew Jason Cohen seeks to answer fundamental questions, such as: What is toleration? What should be tolerated? Why is toleration important? Beginning with some key insights into what we mean by toleration, Cohen goes on to investigate what should be tolerated and why. We should not be free to do everythingÑmurder, rape, and theft, for clear examples, should not be tolerated. But should we be free to take drugs, hire (...)
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  20. The Paradox of Conscientious Objection and the Anemic Concept of 'Conscience': Downplaying the Role of Moral Integrity in Health Care.Alberto Giubilini - 2014 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (2):159-185.
    Conscientious objection in health care is a form of compromise whereby health care practitioners can refuse to take part in safe, legal, and beneficial medical procedures to which they have a moral opposition (for instance abortion). Arguments in defense of conscientious objection in medicine are usually based on the value of respect for the moral integrity of practitioners. I will show that philosophical arguments in defense of conscientious objection based on respect for such moral integrity are extremely weak and, if (...)
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  21. What’s So Special About Persecution?Jaakko Kuosmanen - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (1):129-140.
    The article focuses on examining the distinct nature of persecution. In the article I argue that on the grounds of common historical cases of persecution an account of the core components of the concept may be established. The core comprises three central elements: asymmetrical and systemic threat, severe and sustained harm, and unjust discriminatory targeting. I will conclude the paper by suggesting that none of the components alone make persecution anything distinct. However, the simultaneous occurrence of the components may be (...)
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  22. Towards Understanding Tolerance in Education.Ferdinand J. Potgieter, Johannes L. Van der Walt & Charste C. Wolhuter - 2014 - Hts Theological Studies 70 (3):01-08.
    In recent years, schools and education authorities world wide have been paying increasing attention to issues surrounding diversity and religious tolerance. The term 'tolerance' is, however, clouded by considerable confusion and vagueness. This article seeks to contribute to recent scholarly attempts at understanding tolerance and the term that denotes it. After a brief semantic analysis of the term 'tolerance', arguments concerning the onticity of tolerance as phenomenon or entity are discussed. By examining its onticity we explore and explain some of (...)
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  23. A Linguistic Paradigm of Ethnoreligious Traditions.Alsu F. Valeeva - 2014 - Dialogue and Universalism 24 (3):121-125.
    This article deals with the most significant versions of the confessional factor, acting in modern Russian society as a cultural resource of international consent. Analyzing the problem of confessional tolerance, the author traces the reflection of supporting religious values in communicative-speech space of the renewed society.
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  24. Risking Aggression: Toleration of Threat and Preventive War.Matthew Beard - 2013 - Heythrop Journal 54 (5).
    Generally speaking, just war theory (JWT) holds that there are two just causes for war: self-defence and ‘other-defence’. The most common type of the latter is popularly known as ‘humanitarian intervention’. There is debate, however, as to whether these can serve as just causes for preventive war. Those who subscribe to JWT tend to be unified in treating so-called preventive war with a high degree of suspicion on the grounds that it fails to satisfy conventional criteria for jus ad bello; (...)
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  25. Beyond Liberal Multicultural Toleration: A Critical Approach to Groups' Essentialism.M. Bessone - 2013 - European Journal of Political Theory 12 (3):271-287.
    The article will argue that, despite Will Kymlicka’s claims to the contrary, the concept of ‘multicultural toleration’ implicitly entails an essentialist concept of groups, which amounts to holding a negative ‘permission’, power-loaded conception of toleration and not a positive liberal ‘respect’ conception. This seems contradictory to the general goal of Kymlicka’s multiculturalism. This article will then argue that multicultural toleration is not a satisfactory concept, neither from a conceptual point of view (it is incoherent) nor from a practical point of (...)
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  26. The Ethics of Religious Toleration.Desmond M. Clarke - 2013 - Jurisprudence 4 (1):151-157.
    A review of Why Tolerate Religion? by Brian Leiter.
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  27. Toleration.Andrew Jason Cohen - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Oxford: pp. 5150-5160.
    Contemporary philosophical debates surrounding toleration have revolved around three issues: What is toleration? Should we tolerate and, if so, why? What should be tolerated? These questions are of central importance to social and political thought.
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  28. Religious Tolerance in the Edict of Milan and in the Constitution of Medina.Drago Djuric - 2013 - Filozofija I Društvo 24 (1):277-292.
    In this paper, we will try to offer a blueprint for a more general discussion of the relation of how the question of religious tolerance appears in two documents that the Christian and Islamic traditions recognize and celebrate: namely, the Edict of Milan and the Constitution of Medina. These documents were revolutionary for their time. However, these documents alone, as well as religious teachings, on which they are based, cannot be the measure of relations in our time. They are presented (...)
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  29. Codes of Ethics for Economists: A Pluralist View.Sheila C. Dow - 2013 - Economic Thought 2 (1).
    Within the discussion of ethics and economics some have considered designing a code of ethics for economists. But the idea of such a code is potentially problematic from a pluralist standpoint. Some possibilities are discussed here to show that any code concerning the behaviour of economists presumes a particular view of human nature and thus of professionalism. Further, issues of socio-economic power in the profession pose problems for the interpretation and implementation of some possible principles, notably those referring to standards (...)
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  30. Religiozno Verovanje I Modaliteti Tolerancije U Liberalnom Drustvu (Religious Faith and the Modalities of Tolerance in a Liberal Society).Aleksandar Fatic - 2013 - Theoria: Beograd 56 (1):59-78..
    The paper discusses three aspects of belonging to religious systems of belief within a modern liberal society, namely (1) the sincerity and consistency of belief, (2) the possibility of exteriorization of belief through broader social interactions or transactions, and (3) the relationship between religious belief and the modern concept of affirmative tolerance, or affirmation of differences, which has become a pronounced public policy in multicultural liberal societies. The author argues that, while negative tolerance allows sincere religious belief to flourish in (...)
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  31. Epistemic Toleration and the New Atheism.Richard Fumerton - 2013 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 37 (1):97-108.
  32. Democracy by Day, Police State by Night: What the Eviction of Occupy Philadelphia Revealed About Policing in the United States.Toorjo Ghose - 2013 - Radical Philosophy Review 16 (2):559-574.
    Examining the eviction of Occupy Philadelphia from city hall on November 30, 2011, this paper analyzes police tactics to address public protests in the United States. The results highlight three aspects of the police strategy deployed during the eviction: a preconceived plan to manage protests, the use of militarized tactics to implement this management plan, and the imposition of a state of dissociative meditation triggered by the incarceration that followed the eviction. The strategy of management, militarization, and meditation demonstrates the (...)
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  33. Promoting Classical Tolerance in Public Education: What Should We Do with the Objection Condition?Ole Henrik Borchgrevink Hansen - 2013 - Ethics and Education 8 (1):65 - 76.
    The article considers whether tolerance, in the classical liberal sense, should be promoted in public education. The most substantial counter-argument is that it is problematic to uphold the ?objection condition,? explained below, which is an integral part of classical tolerance, while maintaining tolerance as a virtue. As a response to this, I first discuss an alternative interpretation of tolerance ? ?tolerance as being open-minded, unprejudiced and positive towards difference.? I contend that this understanding is not the preferable one in public (...)
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  34. Performing Tolerance and Curriculum: The Politics of Self-Congratulation, Identity Formation, and Pedagogy in World Music Education. Hess - 2013 - Philosophy of Music Education Review 21 (1):66-91.
  35. Introduction.Maria Paola Ferretti Ian Carter - 2013 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (3):191-194.
    Toleration classically denotes a relation between two agents that is characterised by three components: objection, power, and acceptance overriding the objection. Against recent claims that classical toleration is not applicable in liberal democracies and that toleration must therefore either be understood purely attitudinally or purely politically, we argue that the components of classical toleration are crucial elements of contemporary cases of minority accommodation. The concept of toleration is applicable to, and is an important element of descriptions of such cases, provided (...)
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  36. Toleration and Respect: Historical Instances and Current Problems.M. Khomyakov - 2013 - European Journal of Political Theory 12 (3):223-239.
    The problems of diversity and pluralism have always been serious challenges to the stability of European societies. In the course of its history Europe elaborated various important ways of accommodation of differences, including toleration, respect and recognition. This article is devoted to discussion of the relations among them both in analytical and historical perspectives. I argue that toleration has always been based on a certain kind of respect and distinguish three main paradigms of the relations among these concepts. Then I (...)
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  37. The Political Consequences of Islam’s Economic Legacy.Timur Kuran - 2013 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 39 (4-5):395-405.
    Several of the Middle East’s traditional economic institutions hampered its political development by limiting checks on executive power, preventing the formation of organized and durable opposition movements, and keeping civil society weak. They include Islam’s original tax system, which failed to protect property rights; the waqf, whose rigidity hampered the development of civil society; and private commercial enterprises, whose small scales and short lives blocked the development of private coalitions able to bargain with the state. These institutions contributed to features (...)
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  38. 'Taxation, Conscientious Objection and Religious Freedom'.Annabelle Lever - 2013 - Ethical Perspectives 20 (1):144-153.
    This is part of a symposium on conscientious objection and religious freedom inspired by the US Catholic Church's claim that being forced to pay for health insurance that covers abortions (the effect of 'Obamacare')is the equivalent of forcing pacifists to fight. This article takes issue with this claim, and shows that while it would be unjust on democratic principles to force pacifists to fight, given their willingness to serve their country in other ways, there is no democratic objection to forcing (...)
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  39. The Effects of the Recession on Attitudes Toward Business Ethics: An Inter‐Temporal Study of Business Students in 2001, 2009, and 2010. [REVIEW]Maria Haberfeld Lydia Segal - 2013 - Business and Society Review 118 (1):71-104.
    This inter‐temporal study compares the ethical attitudes of business students at three points: in 2001, when the economy was relatively healthy; in 2009, near the beginning of the current recession; and in 2010, when the economy was worse. Ethical attitudes were measured by replicating a popular survey consisting of 25 ethically charged vignettes. The survey measures willingness to engage in white‐collar crime behaviors, some clearly illegal; others marginally unethical. Findings show an increase in tolerance for clearly illegal behaviors from 2001 (...)
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  40. The Ethics of Intercultural Communication.Malcolm N. MacDonald & John P. O’Regan - 2013 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (10):1005-1017.
    For some time, the role of culture in language education within schools, universities and professional communication has received increasing attention. This article identifies two aporias in the discourse of intercultural communication : first, that it contains an unstated movement towards a universal consciousness; second, that its claims to truth are grounded in an implicit appeal to a transcendental moral signified.These features constitute IC discourse as ‘totality’, or as ‘metaphysics of presence’.The article draws on the work of Levinas ; and Derrida (...)
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  41. Book Review: Why Tolerate Religion? By Brian LeiterWhy Tolerate Religion? By LeiterBrian, Princeton University Press, 2013, Pp. 187 + Xv. [REVIEW]Susan Mendus - 2013 - Political Theory 41 (5):766-769.
  42. 'Zero Tolerance' of Avoidable Infection in the English National Health Service: Avoiding the Redistribution of Burdens.M. Millar - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (1):50-59.
    ‘Zero tolerance’ of avoidable infection events is explicit in UK and international policy documents describing strategies for the control of healthcare-associated infection. I consider what principles governing avoidable infections acquired in healthcare institutions might be reasonably rejected from the contractualist perspective of Thomas Scanlon. Many hospital infections can be cost-effectively avoided. There would seem to be additional reasons to take the prevention of avoidable infection acquired in hospitals seriously in addition to optimizing the cost-effectiveness of healthcare. These include the irretrievable (...)
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  43. Reproductive Autonomy as Self-Making: Procreative Liberty and the Practice of Ethical Subjectivity.Catherine Mills - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (6):639-656.
    In this article, I consider recent debates on the notion of procreative liberty, to argue that reproductive freedom can be understood as a form of positive freedom—that is, the freedom to make oneself according to various ethical and aesthetic principles or values. To make this argument, I draw on Michel Foucault’s later work on ethics. Both adopting and adapting Foucault’s notion of ethics as a practice of the self and of liberty, I argue that reproductive autonomy requires enactment to gain (...)
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  44. Bigotry and Religious Belief.William M. Ramsey - 2013 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 94 (2):125-151.
    Attacks on religious doctrines are often characterized as a form of bigotry and traditional analyses of the concept support this view. I argue that regarding such attacks as bigotry is inconsistent with a variety of contemporary moral attitudes and social goals. I offer an improved account of when we should ascribe bigotry – one that is more coherent with views on tolerance and the importance of open debate. This account focuses upon the justification for hostile attitudes and also limits the (...)
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  45. Not Only a Tolerance Issue.Chiara Saraceno - 2013 - Iride: Filosofia e Discussione Pubblica 26 (1):85-102.
  46. The Fragility of Freedom of Speech.Nicholas Shackel - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (5):316-316.
    Freedom of speech is a fundamental liberty that imposes a stringent duty of tolerance. Tolerance is limited by direct incitements to violence. False notions and bad laws on speech have obscured our view of this freedom. Hence, perhaps, the self-righteous intolerance, incitements and threats in response to Giubilini and Minerva. Those who disagree have the right to argue back but their attempts to shut us up are morally wrong.
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  47. Teaching Ethics Cases: A Pragmatic Approach.Alan E. Singer - 2013 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 22 (1):16-31.
    A new framework-based approach to teaching and analyzing business ethics cases is set out. Using the framework, students are encouraged to adopt two different perspectives: business as usual and a more obviously moral point of view. Subsequently, they are prompted to craft a synthesis or compromise. Several pedagogical benefits flow from adopting the approach, including the cultivation of moral tolerance and improvements in the structure and scope of written action justifications. In addition, the framework enables students to relate ethical theories (...)
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  48. Intolerance and the Zero Tolerance Fallacy.Sheldon Wein - 2013 - In Gabrijela Kišiček (ed.), What Do We Know About the World? Centre for Research on Reasoning, Argumentation, and Rhetoric. pp. 132-144.
    When an activity is unwanted, administrators often adopt a zero tolerance policy towards that activity. The background assumption is that, by adopting a zero tolerance policy, one is doing everything that one can to reduce or eliminate the activity in question. Yet which policy best serves to reduce an unwanted behavior is always an empirical question. Thus, those who adopt a zero tolerance policy towards some behavior without first investigating and finding that they are in a set of circumstances where (...)
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  49. Toleration and Informal Groups: How Does the Formal Dimension Affect Groups' Capacity to Tolerate?F. Zuolo - 2013 - European Journal of Political Theory 12 (3):288-305.
    The ‘agents’ of toleration can be divided into three categories: public institutions, groups and individuals. If it is mostly accepted that both public institutions and individuals are capable of toleration, it is not clear that such a capacity can be attributed to groups, although in daily discourse we seem ready to say that a certain social group is (in)tolerant. This article aims to address this issue by investigating the relationship between collective agency and social groups. Formal groups (e.g. corporations) have (...)
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  50. The Struggle for the Legal Status of Religion in the Polish Constitution.Tadeusz Buksiński - 2012 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 25 (4):577-583.
    The use of specific language in the democratic Polish Constitution enacted on 2 April 1997 has created the essential differences in the status of religions and Churches in Poland to this in some other countries. It accepts the modern principles and values (tolerance, freedom, mutual independence of state and churches) but precludes the atheistic, hostile or indifferent to religions interpretations and implementations of these values and principles.
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