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Summary

Feminist philosophical work focused on non-human animals considers the status of non-human animals themselves as well as the moral, epistemological, metaphysical, and phenomenological dimensions of human/non-human animal relationships.  Theoretical work in this area often focuses on the intersections of gender, race, class, and species, noticing the ways in which the exploitation of non-humans is linked to the exploitation of marginalized humans.  There is considerable overlap between feminist work on non-human animals and ecofeminism, though not all ecofeminism has been inclusive of non-human animals.

Key works  One of the earlier works connecting feminism and animals is Adams 2000.  Other key works in this area include volumes edited by Adams and Donovan including Animals and Women and The Feminist Care Tradition in Animal Ethics as well as Greta Gaard's volume entitled Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature.  There is  a rich literature on feminism and non-human animals, some journal articles of note include, Gruen 2011, Gruen et al 2012, Gaard 2001, McKenna 1994, Kheel 1985, and Slicer 1991.
Introductions Gruen 2011
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  1. Sister Species: Women, Animals and Social Justice.Carol J. Adams - 2011 - University of Illinois Press.
  2. The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory.Carol J. Adams - 2000 - Continuum.
    New Tenth Anniversary edition of this classic text with a new preface by the author, compares myths about meat-eating with myths about manliness, and seeks to ...
  3. Neither Man nor Beast: Feminism and the Defense of Animals.Carol J. Adams - 1994 - Continuum.
    In just a few years, the book became an underground classic. Neither Man Nor Beast takes Adams' thought one step further.
  4. Ecofeminism and the Eating of Animals.Carol J. Adams - 1991 - Hypatia 6 (1):125 - 145.
    In this essay, I will argue that contemporary ecofeminist discourse, while potentially adequate to deal with the issue of animals, is now inadequate because it fails to give consistent conceptual place to the domination of animals as a significant aspect of the domination of nature. I will examine six answers ecofeminists could give for not including animals explicitly in ecofeminist analyses and show how a persistent patriarchal ideology regarding animals as instruments has kept the experience of animals from being fully (...)
  5. Ecofeminism and the Eating of Animals1.Carol J. Adams - 1991 - Hypatia 6 (1):125-145.
    In this essay, I will argue that contemporary ecofeminist discourse, while potentially adequate to deal with the issue of animals, is now inadequate because it fails to give consistent conceptual place to the domination of animals as a significant aspect of the domination of nature. I will examine six answers ecofeminists could give for not including animals explicitly in ecofeminist analyses and show how a persistent patriarchal ideology regarding animals as instruments has kept the experience of animals from being fully (...)
  6. Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations.Carol J. Adams & Donovan Josephine (eds.) - 1995 - Duke University Press.
  7. Thou Shall Not Harm All Living Beings: Feminism, Jainism, and Animals.Irina Aristarkhova - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (3):636-650.
  8. We Are What We Eat: Feminist Vegetarianism and the Reproduction of Racial Identity.Cathryn Bailey - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (2):39-59.
    : In this article, Bailey analyzes the relationship between ethical vegetarianism (or the claim that ethical vegetarianism is morally right for all people) and white racism (the claim that white solipsistic and possibly white privileged ethical claims are imperialistically or insensitively universalized over less privileged human lives). This plays out in the dreaded comparison of animals with people of color and Jews as exemplified in the PETA campaign and the need for human identification (or solidarity) with animals in ethical vegetarianism. (...)
  9. Loving Animals: Toward a New Animal Advocacy. By Kathy Rudy. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2011. [REVIEW]Frances Bartkowski - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (3):675-678.
  10. Feminism, Animals, and Science: The Naming of the Shrew.Lynda I. A. Birke - 1994 - Open University Press.
  11. Animal, Vegetable, or Woman?: A Feminist Critique of Ethical Vegetarianism.David Boonin - 2002 - Environmental Ethics 24 (4):429-432.
  12. Feminism, Animals and Science: The Naming of the Shrew.Nadine Brummer - 1995 - Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (3):316-317.
  13. How Ecological Should Epistemology Be?Richmond Campbell - 2008 - Hypatia 23 (1):161-169.
  14. “The Animal” and “The Feminist”.Emily Clark - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (2).
  15. Cows and Others: Toward Constructing Ecofeminist Selves.Vrinda Dalmiya - 2002 - Environmental Ethics 24 (2):149-168.
    I examine the kind of alliances and ironic crossing of borders that constitute an ecofeminist subjectivity by appeal to a postcolonial literary imagination and ahistorical philosophical argumentation. I link the theoretical insights of a modern short story “Bestiality” with a concept of “congenital debt” found in the ancient Vedic corpus to suggest a notion of ecological selfhood that transforms into the idea of a “gift community” to encompass nonhumans as well as people on the fringes of society, but without the (...)
  16. Toward a Postcolonial, Posthumanist Feminist Theory: Centralizing Race and Culture in Feminist Work on Nonhuman Animals.Maneesha Deckha - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (3):527-545.
    Posthumanist feminist theory has been instrumental in demonstrating the salience of gender and sexism in structuring human–animal relationships and in revealing the connections between the oppression of women and of nonhuman animals. Despite the richness of feminist posthumanist theorizations it has been suggested that their influence in contemporary animal ethics has been muted. This marginalization of feminist work—here, in its posthumanist version—is a systemic issue within theory and needs to be remedied. At the same time, the limits of posthumanist feminist (...)
  17. Feminism and the Treatment of Animals : From Care to Dialogue.Josephine Donovan - 2008 - In Susan J. Armstrong & Richard George Botzler (eds.), The Animal Ethics Reader. Routledge.
  18. The Feminist Care Tradition in Animal Ethics.Josephine Donovan & Carol Adams (eds.) - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    In _Beyond Animal Rights_, Josephine Donovan and Carol J. Adams introduced feminist "ethic of care" theory into philosophical discussions of the treatment of animals. In this new volume, seven essays from _Beyond Animal Rights_ are joined by nine new articles-most of which were written in response to that book-and a new introduction that situates feminist animal care theory within feminist theory and the larger debate over animal rights. Contributors critique theorists' reliance on natural rights doctrine and utilitarianism, which, they suggest, (...)
  19. Beyond Animal Rights: A Feminist Caring Ethic for the Treatment of Animals.Josephine Donovan & Carol J. Adams (eds.) - 1996 - Continuum.
  20. Sister Species: Women, Animals, and Social Justice. Edited by Lisa Kemmerer. Urbana, Chicago, and Springfield: University of Illinois Press, 2011. [REVIEW]Karen S. Emmerman - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (3):670-672.
  21. Speaking of Animal Bodies.Greta Gaard - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (2):n/a-n/a.
  22. Women, Animals, and Ecofeminist Critique.Greta Gaard - 1996 - Environmental Ethics 18 (4):439-441.
  23. Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature.Greta Gaard (ed.) - 1993 - Temple University Press.
  24. Tools for a Cross-Cultural Feminist Ethics: Exploring Ethical Contexts and Contents in the Makah Whale Hunt.Greta Claire Gaard - 2001 - Hypatia 16 (1):1-26.
    : Antiracist white feminists and ecofeminists have the tools but lack the strategies for responding to issues of social and environmental justice cross-culturally, particularly in matters as complex as the Makah whale hunt. Distinguishing between ethical contexts and contents, I draw on feminist critiques of cultural essentialism, ecofeminist critiques of hunting and food consumption, and socialist feminist analyses of colonialism to develop antiracist feminist and ecofeminist strategies for cross-cultural communication and cross-cultural feminist ethics.
  25. Marti Kheel Remembered (1948–2011).Lori Gruen - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (3):488-491.
  26. Ethics and Animals: An Introduction.Lori Gruen - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this comprehensive introduction to animal ethics, Lori Gruen weaves together poignant and provocative case studies with discussions of ethical theory, urging readers to engage critically and empathetically reflect on our treatment of other animals. In clear and accessible language, Gruen provides a survey of the issues central to human-animal relations and a reasoned new perspective on current key debates in the field. She analyses and explains a range of theoretical positions and poses challenging questions that directly encourage readers to (...)
  27. Animal Others—Editors' Introduction.Lori Gruen & Kari Weil - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (3):477-487.
  28. Introduction: Feminists Encountering Animals.Lori Gruen & Kari Weil - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (2):492-526.
  29. Introduction.Lori Gruen, Kari Weil, Kelly Oliver, Traci Warkentin, Stephanie Jenkins, Carrie Rohman, Emily Clark & Greta Gaard - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (3):492-526.
  30. Invited Symposium: Feminists Encountering Animals.Lori Gruen, Kari Weil, Kelly Oliver, Traci Warkentin, Stephanie Jenkins, Carrie Rohman, Emily Clark & Greta Gaard - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (3):492 - 526.
  31. The Parallel Lives of Women and Cows: Meat Markets.Jean O'Malley Halley - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
  32. Returning the Ethical and Political to Animal Studies.Stephanie Jenkins - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (2):n/a-n/a.
  33. Environmental Ethics and the Case for Hunting.Roger J. H. King - 1991 - Environmental Ethics 13 (1):59-85.
    Hunting is a complex phenomenon. l examine it from four different perspectives-animal liberation, the land ethic, primitivism, and ecofeminism-and find no moral justification for sport hunting in any of them. At the same time, however, I argue that there are theoretical flaws in each of these approaches. Animal liberationists focus too much on the individual animal and ignore the difference between domestic and wild animals. Leopold’s land ethic fails to come to terms with the self-domestication of humans. I argue that (...)
  34. Intimate Bureaucracies: Roadkill, Policy, and Fieldwork on the Shoulder.Alexandra Koelle - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (3):651-669.
    Over the last twenty years, wildlife biologists and transportation planners have worked with environmental groups and state and tribal governments to mitigate the effects of human transportation arteries on animal habitats and movements. This paper draws connections between this growing field of road ecology and feminist science studies in order to accomplish two things. First, it aims to highlight the often unacknowledged roots that the interdisciplinary field of animal studies has in feminist theory. Second, it seeks to contribute to conversations (...)
  35. Women-Animals-Machines: A Grammar for a Wittgensteinian Ecofeminism. [REVIEW]Wendy Lee-Lampshire - 1995 - Journal of Value Inquiry 29 (1):89-101.
  36. A Defense of the Feminist-Vegetarian Connection.Sheri Lucas - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (1):150-177.
    : Kathryn Paxton George's recent publication, Animal, Vegetable, or Woman? (2000), is the culmination of more than a decade's work and encompasses standard and original arguments against the feminist-vegetarian connection. This paper demonstrates that George's key arguments are deeply flawed, antithetical to basic feminist commitments, and beg the question against fundamental aspects of the debate. Those who do not accept the feminist-vegetarian connection should rethink their position or offer a non-question-begging defense of it.
  37. Vegan Diets for Women, Infants, and Children.Ann Reed Mangels & Suzanne Havala - 1994 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):111-122.
    Infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women have been described as groups with special needs. Regardless of diet chosen, these groups are at higher risk for nutritional deficiencies than adult males. Vegan diets can be safely used by these groups if foods, and in some instances supplements, are selected which provide a healthful and nutritionally adequate diet. Guidelines have been developed for those choosing to follow vegan diets. In many instances vegan diets offer health benefits. Studies of vegans are (...)
  38. Women, Power, and Meat: Comparing the Sexual Contract and the Sexual Politics of Meat.Erin McKenna - 1996 - Journal of Social Philosophy 27 (1):47-64.
    Eating animals acts as mirror and representation of patriarchal values. Meat eating is the re-inscription of male power at every meal. The patriarchal gaze sees not the fragmented flesh of dead animals but appetizing food. If our appetites re-inscribe patriarchy, our actions regarding eating animals will either reify or challenge this received culture. If meat is a symbol of male dominance then the presence of meat proclaims the disempowering of women.
  39. Feminism and Vegetarianism.Erin McKenna - 1994 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 1 (3):28-35.
    Singer’s ethics assume an autonomous, impartial, abstract reasoner. Nonhuman animals, like human animals, have an interest in not suffering; so we all agree on an impartial, rational, consistent minimum standard of treatment that we see must extend to nonhuman animals. While I think this kind of argument works well in the “liberal” context of countries based on social contract reasoning, I am not convinced it goes far enough in achieving the desired attitude shift. We are still encouraged to think in (...)
  40. The Case for Our Widespread Dependency.Kathryn Norlock - 2004 - Social Theory and Practice 30 (2):247-257.
    In this review essay, I assess The Subject of Care (eds. Eva Feder Kittay and Ellen K. Feder) as a collection that does compelling work in identifying dependency as a fact of life and demonstrating its importance philosophically. At a minimum, the collection builds a case against four tenets of traditional liberalism, which I shall represent as follows: (Tl) Dependency can be avoided by adults and equals. (T2) Dependency should be avoided by adults and equals. (T3) Independence can be achieved (...)
  41. Ambivalence Toward Animals and the Moral Community.Kelly Oliver - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (2):n/a-n/a.
  42. Animal Lessons: How They Teach Us to Be Human.Kelly Oliver - 2009 - Columbia University Press.
    Introduction: The role of animals in philosophies of man -- Part I: What's wrong with animal rights? -- The right to remain silent -- Part II: Animal pedagogy -- You are what you eat : Rousseau's cat -- Say the human responded : Herder's sheep -- Part III: Difference worthy of its name -- Hair of the dog : Derrida's and Rousseau's good taste -- Sexual difference, animal difference : Derrida's sexy silkworm -- Part IV: It's our fault -- The (...)
  43. Wild, Women, and Wolves: An Ecological Feminist Examination of Wolf Introduction.Colette R. Palamar - 2007 - Environmental Ethics 29 (1):63-75.
    Despite the successes, and the considerable and continuing ethical disputes regarding wolf reintroduction in the United States, no clear, cogent, theoretically based ethical examination of the wolf reintroductions has yet been completed. Ecological feminist thought, particularly as articulated by Karen J. Warren, presents one way to create such an ethical assessment. Applying ecological feminist theories to wolf reintroduction also generates an intriguing instance of theoretical application in the “real world” and sheds insight on the pragmatic value of ecological feminist thought. (...)
  44. The Sexual Contract and the Animals.Carole Pateman - 1996 - Journal of Social Philosophy 27 (1):65-80.
  45. Disciplinary Becomings: Horizons of Knowledge in Animal Studies.Carrie Rohman - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (2):n/a-n/a.
  46. Feminism and Vegetarianism.Peter Singer - 1994 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 1 (3):36-38.
    Erin McKenna is correct to question the relative weight that I give to emotions and reason in Animal Liberation. In 1975 when the first edition was published, emotion played a key role in the campaigns of animal societies, and I wished to make an appeal to reason that would have ethical and political impact. I disagree with McKenna’s conclusion that an impartial, objective stance is either impossible or undesirable. I argue that we should not abandon the attempt to reach an (...)
  47. Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature.Deborah Slicer - 1994 - Environmental Ethics 16 (3):315-319.
  48. The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory.Deborah Slicer - 1992 - Environmental Ethics 14 (4):365-369.
  49. Species Trouble: Judith Butler, Mourning, and the Precarious Lives of Animals.James Stanescu - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (3):567-582.
    This article utilizes the work of Judith Butler in order to chart a queer and feminist animal studies, an animal studies that celebrates our shared embodied finitude. Butler's commentary on other animals remains dispersed and fragmented throughout books, lectures, and interviews over the course of the last several years. This work is critically synthesized in conjunction with her work on mourning and precarious lives. By developing an anti-anthropocentric understanding of mourning and precarious lives, this article hopes to create ontological, ethical, (...)
  50. Considering Animals: Kheel's Nature Ethics and Animal Debates in Ecofeminism.Noël Sturgeon - 2009 - Ethics and the Environment 14 (2):pp. 153-162.
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