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Practical Reason

Edited by Sergio Tenenbaum (University of Toronto)
Assistant editor: Benjamin Elliott Wald (University of Toronto)
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  1. Darren Abramson (2004). Review of “Rationality in Action”. [REVIEW] Essays in Philosophy 5 (2):2.
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  2. Harvey M. Adelman & Gerald Rosenbaum (1954). Extinction of Instrumental Behavior as a Function of Frustration at Various Distances From the Goal. Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (6):429.
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  3. S. E. N. Amartya (2005). Why Exactly is Commitment Important for Rationality? Economics and Philosophy 21 (1):5-14.
    Gary Becker and others have done important work to broaden the content of self interest, but have not departed from seeing rationality in terms of the exclusive pursuit of self-interest. One reason why committed behavior is important is that a person can have good reason to pursue objectives other than self interest maximization (no matter how broadly it is construed). Indeed, one can also follow rules of behavior that go beyond the pursuit of one's own goals, even if the goals (...)
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  4. Ian H. Angus (1979). Toward a Phenomenology of Rational Action. Man and World 12 (3):298-321.
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  5. G. E. M. Anscombe & Stephan Körner (eds.) (1974). Practical Reason: Papers and Discussions. Yale University Press.
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  6. D. J. Anzia & J. La Puma (1990). Right Action: Commentary on" Practical Reasoning in Medicine. Journal of Clinical Ethics 1 (3):193.
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  7. Robert K. Armstrong (2004). Normativity and Individualism: An Essay on Hume. Dissertation, Columbia University
    Hume's theory of practical rationality, it has been claimed, fails to account for the intrinsically social character of practical deliberation and of the norms governing action. While the standard way of pressing this critique is unsuccessful, it can be advanced in another way. It is alleged that Hume cannot explain how it is possible to act contrary to reason because he holds that practical reasons are grounded in brute desires which are beyond the reach of rational criticism. But Hume offers (...)
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  8. Frank Arntzenius (2007). 7. Rationality and Self-Confidence. Oxford Studies in Epistemology: Volume 2 2:165.
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  9. E. A. Ashcroft (1906). The World's Desires. The Monist 16:473.
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  10. Manuel Atienza (1992). Practical Reason and Legislation. Ratio Juris 5 (3):269-287.
    The author's starting point is Bobbio's theoretical approach to the problems of the relations between law and reason. He then appraises the meanings of reason and the concept of theoretical and practical rationality in the application of law. He examines the complex problem of the rationality of legislation and distinguishes five levels of rationality.
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  11. Robert Audi (2007). 2 Prospects for a Naturalization of Practical Reason: Instrumentalism and the Normative Authority of Desire. In Michael O'Rourke Corey Washington (ed.), Situating Semantics: Essays on the Philosophy of John Perry. 41.
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  12. Robert Audi (2007). Practical Reason and the Status of Moral Obligation. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (5):pp. 197-229.
    The article presents the author's views concerning the philosophical views regarding ethical obligation. He emphasizes the general, moral, and practical skepticism of the moral obligation. He provides information on the notions about normative externalism. The conflicting ideas between egoistic and intrapersonal are also discussed.
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  13. Robert Audi (2003). Précis of the Architecture of Reason. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 67 (1):177–180.
    This book constructs a comprehensive theory of rationality. Part I addresses theoretical rationality, roughly the territory of epistemology. Part II concerns practical rationality, roughly the territory of rational action, rational desire, and moral conduct. The third, final part addresses global rationality, the overall rationality of persons. Throughout, the role of experience is central: theoretical reason represents, in good part, our cognitive responses to experience, and it yields our map of the world. Practical reason represents, in good part, our conative responses (...)
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  14. Robert Audi (1991). The Nature and Assessment of Practical Reasoning: A Reply to John Barker and Richard Foley. Behavior and Philosophy 19 (2):73 - 81.
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  15. Robert Audi (1990). An Internalist Conception of Rational Action. Philosophical Perspectives 4:227-245.
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  16. Robert Audi (1990). Weakness of Will and Rational Action. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 68 (3):270 – 281.
    Weakness of will has been widely discussed from at least three points of view. It has been examined historically, with Aristotle recently occupying centre stage. It has been analysed conceptually, with the question of its nature and possibility in the forefront. It has been considered normatively in relation to both rational action and moral character. My concern is not historical and is only secondarily conceptual: while I hope to clarify what constitutes weakness of will, I presuppose, rather than construct, an (...)
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  17. Robert Audi (1972). Psychoanalytic Explanation and the Concept of Rational Action. The Monist 56 (3):444-464.
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  18. Bruce Aune (1966). Intention and Foresight. Journal of Philosophy 63 (20):652-654.
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  19. Carla Bagnoli (2009). The Mafioso Case: Autonomy and Self-Respect. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (5):477 - 493.
    This article argues that immoralists do not fully enjoy autonomous agency because they are not capable of engaging in the proper form of practical reflection, which requires relating to others as having equal standing. An adequate diagnosis of the immoralist’s failure of agential authority requires a relational account of reflexivity and autonomy. This account has the distinctive merit of identifying the cost of disregarding moral obligations and of showing how immoralists may become susceptible to practical reason. The compelling quality of (...)
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  20. Carla Bagnoli (2001). Rawls on the Objectivity of Practical Reason. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 1 (3):307-329.
    This article argues that Rawls’ history of ethics importantly contributes to the advancement of ethical theory, in that it correctly situates Kantian constructivism as an alternative to both sentimentalism and rational Intuitionism, and calls attention to the standards of objectivity in ethics. The author shows that by suggesting that both Intuitionist and Humean doctrines face the charge of heteronomy, Rawls appearsto adopt a Kantian conception of practical reason. Furthermore, Rawls follows Kant in assuming that ethical objectivity can be vindicated only (...)
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  21. Baker (2010). Procrastination as Vice. In Chrisoula Andreou Mark D. White (ed.), The Thief of Time: Philosophical Essays on Procrastination. Oxford.
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  22. Judith Baker (2008). Rationality Without Reasons. Mind 117 (468):763-782.
    This paper challenges the assumption that reasons are intrinsic to rational action. A great many actions are not best understood as ones in which the agent acted for reasons--and yet they can be understood as rational, and as open to rational criticism. The relative paucity of explicit reason-giving, practical arguments in daily life presents a general philosophical problem. It reflects the existence of a class of ways in which reason can regulate action, which goes far beyond producing reasons or applying (...)
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  23. Jennifer Baker (2013). Virtue Ethics and Practical Guidance. Social Philosophy and Policy 30 (1-2):297-313.
    In this essay I argue that contemporary accounts of virtue ought to incorporate methods ancient virtue ethicists used in addressing an audience whose members were interested in improving their behavior. Ancient examples of these methods, I argue, model how to represent practical rationality in ethical arguments. They show us that when we argue for virtue we ought to address common claims, refer to moral reasoning as a stepwise process, and focus on norms when making recommendations. Our own ethical arguments will (...)
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  24. Michael D. Barber (2007). Ethical Experience and the Motives for Practical Rationality. International Philosophical Quarterly 47 (4):425-441.
    John McDowell’s ethical writings interpret ethical experience as intentional, socially-conditioned, virtuous responsiveness to situations and develop a modest account of practical rationality. His work converges with investigations of ethical experience by recent Kant scholars (Sherman, Brewer, Herman) and Emmanuel Levinas. The Kantian interpreters and Levinas locate the categorical demands of ethical experience in rational agents’ demands for respect, while McDowell finds it in noble adherence to the demands of virtuous living. For McDowell, moral-practical rational efforts to justify ethics cannot transcend (...)
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  25. Ricardo Barbosa (2005). A especificidade do estético e a razão prática em Schiller. Kriterion 46 (112):229-242.
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  26. John A. Barker (1991). Audi's Theory of Practical Reasoning. Behavior and Philosophy 19 (2):49 - 58.
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  27. Eric Barnes (2000). Ruling Passions: A Theory of Practical Reason, Simon Blackburn. Clarendon Press, 1998, 344 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 16 (2):372-378.
  28. Gerald W. Barnes (1982). Mince Pie Reasoning. Analysis 42 (3):163 - 169.
    ‘…one might easily wonder why no one has ever pointed out the mince pie syllogism…” (G. E. M. Anscombe, Intention, 2nd edition 1969, sec. 33).
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  29. Jon Barwise (1996). The Right Things for the Right Reasons. In Piergiorgio Odifreddi (ed.), Kreiseliana. About and Around Georg Kreisel. A K Peters. 15.
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  30. Robert Bassett (2015). A Critique of Benchmark Theory. Synthese 192 (1):241-267.
    Benchmark theory , introduced by Ralph Wedgwood, departs from decision theories of pure expectation maximization like evidential decision theory and causal decision theory and instead ranks actions according to the desirability of an outcome they produce in some state of affairs compared to a standard—a benchmark—for that state of affairs. Wedgwood motivates BT through what he terms Gandalf’s principle, that the merits of an action in a given state should be evaluated relative only to the performances of other actions in (...)
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  31. Leora Batnitzky (1995). A Seamless Web? John Finnis and Joseph Raz on Practical Reason and the Obligation to Obey the Law. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 15 (2):153-175.
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  32. Peter Baumann & Monika Betzler (eds.) (2004). Practical Conflicts: New Philosophical Essays. Cambridge.
    Practical conflicts pervade human life. Agents have many different desires, goals, and commitments, all of which can come into conflict with each other. How can practical reasoning help to resolve these practical conflicts? In this collection of new essays a distinguished roster of philosophers analyze the diverse forms of practical conflict. Their aim is to establish an understanding of the sources of these conflicts, to investigate the challenge they pose to an adequate conception of practical reasoning, and to assess the (...)
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  33. Kenneth Baynes (1992). Constructivism and Practical Reason in Rawls. Analyse and Kritik 14:18-32.
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  34. Ronald E. Beanblossom (1971). Walton on Rational Action. Mind 80 (318):278-281.
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  35. William W. Beatty & William S. Maki (1979). Acquisition of Instrumental Responding Following Noncontingent Reinforcement: Failure to Observe “Learned Laziness” in Rats. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 13 (4):268-271.
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  36. Donald Beggs (2013). The Moral Virtue of Doublemindedness. Philosophy 88 (3):411-432.
    The conscientious are morally conflicted when their moral dilemmas or incommensurabilities, real or apparent, have not been resolved. But such doublemindedness need not lead to ethical disintegration or moral insensitivity. For one may develop the moral virtue of doublemindedness, the settled power to deliberate and act well while morally conflicted. Such action will be accompanied by both moral loss (perhaps ) and ethical gain (salubrious agental stability). In explaining the virtue's moral psychology I show, among other things, its consistency with (...)
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  37. S. I. Benn & G. F. Gaus (1986). Practical Rationality and Commitment. American Philosophical Quarterly 23 (3):255 - 266.
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  38. Christopher Bennett (2012). Excuses, Justifications and the Normativity of Expressive Behaviour. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 32 (3):563-581.
    In this article, I look at the role of appeals to the emotions in criminal law defences. A position commonly held is that appeals to the emotions can excuse but cannot justify. However, we should be careful that this view does not rest on too simple and non-cognitive a view of the emotions. I contrast a simple picture, according to which action from emotion involves loss of rational control, with the more Aristotelian picture recently offered by RA Duff. I then (...)
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  39. J. Bennett (1965). GAUTHIER, D. P. - "Practical Reasoning". [REVIEW] Mind 74:116.
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  40. Robert J. Benton (1980). Kant's Categories of Practical Reason as Such. Kant-Studien 71 (1-4):181-201.
  41. Yogi Berra (2004). Involvement and Detachment: A Paradox of Practical Reason Peter Baumann. In Peter Baumann & Monika Betzler (eds.), Practical Conflicts: New Philosophical Essays. Cambridge. 244.
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  42. Stefano Bertea (2015). A Foundation for the Conception of Law as Practical Reason. Law and Philosophy 34 (1):55-88.
    This essay discusses a foundation of the connection argued to exist between law and practical reason that has proved to be highly influential and debated in contemporary legal philosophy – Alexy’s. After reconstructing Alexy’s conception of practical reason as well as its foundation, I criticise the weak transcendental-pragmatic argument Alexy uses to ground the authority of practical reason. This argument, I argue, can only show why occasionally, as opposed to necessarily, we ought to follow the guidance of practical reason, and (...)
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  43. Thomas M. Besch (2008). Constructing Practical Reason: O'Neill on the Grounds of Kantian Constructivism. Journal of Value Inquiry 42 (1):55-76.
    The paper addresses O'Neill's view that her version of Kant's Categorical Imperative, namely, the requirement of followability (RF), marks the supreme principle of reason; it takes issue with her claim that RF commits us to Kantian constructivism in practical philosophy. The paper distinguishes between two readings of RF: on a weak reading, RF ranges over all (practical) reasoning but does not commit to constructivism, and on a strong version RF commits to constructivism but fails to meet its own test, and (...)
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  44. Andrea Croce Birch (1988). The Cunning of Reason. Review of Metaphysics 42 (2):389-390.
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  45. David Birch (1964). Incentive Value of Success and Instrumental Approach Behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (2):131.
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  46. Max Black (1986). Ambiguities of Rationality. In Newton Garver & Peter H. Hare (eds.), Naturalism and Rationality. Prometheus Books. 25--40.
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  47. Oliver Black (2004). Agreements, Undertakings, and Practical Reason. Legal Theory 10 (2):77-95.
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  48. James Bohman (2000). "When Water Chokes": Ideology, Communication, and Practical Rationality. Constellations 7 (3):382-392.
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  49. Hilary Bok (2003). Freedom and Practical Reason. In Gary Watson (ed.), Free Will. Oup Oxford.
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  50. Daniel Bonevac & T. K. Seung (1988). Conflict in Practical Reasoning. Philosophical Studies 53 (3):315 - 345.
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