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  1. Surreal Decisions.Eddy Keming Chen & Daniel Rubio - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Although expected utility theory has proven a fruitful and elegant theory in the finite realm, attempts to generalize it to infinite values have resulted in many paradoxes. In this paper, we argue that the use of John Conway's surreal numbers shall provide a firm mathematical foundation for transfinite decision theory. To that end, we prove a surreal representation theorem and show that our surreal decision theory respects dominance reasoning even in the case of infinite values. We then bring our theory (...)
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  2. The Yin and Yang of Tuning History.György Nováky - 2017 - Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 16 (4):410-414.
    History as a subject area is facing increasing demands from the society to be more profitable and, sometimes, more conformist. The Tuning methodology, developed in cooperation with a large number of Universities worldwide, could offer a viable and sustainable way to take societal needs into account without compromising academic soundness.
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  3. The Everlasting Check: Hume on Miracles, by Alexander George. [REVIEW]Wade Robison - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 95 (4):834-835.
  4. Implementation and Experimental Studies of a Self-Tuning PSS Using the ADALINE-Identifier and Pole-Shift Controller.G. Ramakrishna & O. P. Malik - 2004 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 13 (3):173-198.
  5. Pragmatic Decisions About God From Different Points of View: The Costs of Apostasy.Cei Maslen - 2016 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 80 (2):103-113.
    Pascal, with his famous wager, argued in favour of religious practice and faith by appeal to expected payoffs. Here I discuss an asymmetry in similar pragmatic arguments for decisions about God. I begin with the observation that apostates pay costs not shared by those who never adopt a religion in the first place. Noticing this asymmetry shows these arguments from a new perspective and may also contribute to an explanation of the endurance of religion.
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  6. Acts or Rules? The Fine Tuning of Utilitarianism.Brad Hooker - unknown
  7. Generation of the Universe and "Design for Living.".A. E. M. & Percy A. Campbell - 1935 - Journal of Philosophy 32 (3):80.
  8. Tuning Icosahedral Quasicrystals and Their Approximants From the Mg2Zn11structure.Q. Lin & J. D. Corbett - 2006 - Philosophical Magazine 86 (3-5):607-613.
  9. Sensory Optimization by Stochastic Tuning.Peter Jurica, Sergei Gepshtein, Ivan Tyukin & Cees van Leeuwen - 2013 - Psychological Review 120 (4):798-816.
  10. Alone in the Universe.Howard Smith - 2016 - Zygon 51 (2):497-519.
    We are probably alone in the universe—a conclusion based on observations of over 4,000 exoplanets and fundamental physical constraints. This article updates earlier arguments with the latest astrophysical results. Since the discovery of exoplanets, theologians have asked with renewed urgency what the presence of extraterrestrial intelligence says about salvation and human purpose, but this is the wrong question. The more urgent question is what their absence says. The “Misanthropic Principle” is the observation that, in a universe fine-tuned for life, the (...)
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  11. Is Hume's Critique of Induction Self‐Defeating?Charles Cassini - 2013 - Heythrop Journal.
  12. Probability and Evolution. Why the Probability Argument of Creationists is Wrong.Josef Schurz - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):163-165.
    Evolution is a time process. It proceeds in steps of definite length. The probability of each step is relatively high, so self organization of complex systems will be possible in finite time. Prerequisite for such a process is a selection rule, which certainly exists in evolution. Therefore, it would be wrong to calculate the probability of the formation of a complex system solely on the basis of the number of its components and as a momentary event.
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  13. Taking Stock of Infinite Value: Pascal’s Wager and Relative Utilities.Paul Bartha - 2007 - Synthese 154 (1):5-52.
    Among recent objections to Pascal's Wager, two are especially compelling. The first is that decision theory, and specifically the requirement of maximizing expected utility, is incompatible with infinite utility values. The second is that even if infinite utility values are admitted, the argument of the Wager is invalid provided that we allow mixed strategies. Furthermore, Hájek has shown that reformulations of Pascal's Wager that address these criticisms inevitably lead to arguments that are philosophically unsatisfying and historically unfaithful. Both the objections (...)
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  14. The Will to Come Out All Right.Herb Yarvin - 1976 - Religious Studies 12 (3):303.
    William James presents Pascal's wager in this manner: if you believe in God and God exists, then your gain is infinite; if you believe in God and God doesn't exist, then your loss is finite. Therefore, since a finite loss is reasonable where there is the possibility of infinite gain, you ought to believe in God. ‘What have you to lose?’ James asks . 1.
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  15. Mellor's ‘Bridge–Hand’ Argument.B. L. Hebblethwaite - 1986 - Religious Studies 22 (3-4):473.
  16. Science and Supernaturalism.Clement Dore - 2016 - Think 15 (42):35-52.
    In the first section of this paper, I discuss a quantum mechanical account, which is endorsed by the MIT physicist, Alan Guth, of the origin of what Guth believes to have been an absolutely first universe. I argue that, though his explanation is unsound, there is no reason to think that it needs to be replaced by a supernaturalist one. In the second section, I argue that though Professor Steven Weinberg's tentative explanation of the apparent fine-tuning of the cosmological constant (...)
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  17. The Fine-Tuning Argument.Klaas Landsman - unknown
    Our laws of nature and our cosmos appear to be delicately fine-tuned for life to emerge. First, if the initial conditions prevailing immediately after the Big Bang had been ever so slightly different, then the universe would either have recollapsed immediately, or would have expanded far too quickly into a chilling, eternal void. Second, if any one of the fundamental forces of nature had been a tiny bit different in strength, or if the masses of some elementary particles had been (...)
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  18. A Speech About Comanches and Miracles Made to Premedical Students Who Are Not as Scary as Doctors.Jim W. Corder - 1981 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 24 (2):189-194.
  19. Worlds Without End: The Many Lives of the Multiverse.Mary-Jane Rubenstein - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    "Multiverse" cosmologies imagine our universe as just one of a vast number of others. While this idea has captivated philosophy, religion, and literature for millennia, it is now being considered as a scientific hypothesis--with different models emerging from cosmology, quantum mechanics, and string theory. Beginning with ancient Atomist and Stoic philosophies, Mary-Jane Rubenstein links contemporary models of the multiverse to their forerunners and explores the reasons for their recent appearance. One concerns the so-called fine-tuning of the universe: nature's constants are (...)
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  20. William Wood Blaise Pascal on Duplicity, Sin, and the Fall: The Secret Instinct. . Pp. Viii + 243. £65.00 . ISBN 978 0 19 965636 3. [REVIEW]Kate Kirkpatrick - 2015 - Religious Studies 51 (2):271-275.
  21. Blaise Pascal on Duplicity, Sin and the Fall: The Secret Instinct by William Wood , Vi + 243 Pp.Klaas Bom - 2015 - Modern Theology 31 (2):362-363.
  22. Hume, Miracle Reports, and Credibility.Hendrik van der Breggen - unknown
    The purpose of this thesis is to gain an accurate appreciation of the force of David Hume's arguments against reasonable belief in the truth of miracle reports. To avoid the possibility of misrepresenting Hume's arguments, which are found in his essay "Of Miracles," I expend considerable effort in attempting to interpret them fairly and charitably. Because an important claim in Part One of his two-part essay is understood by Hume in private correspondence to mean something significantly different from its obvious (...)
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  23. Recurrence Again.Nathan Salmon - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (2):445-457.
    Kit Fine has replied to my criticism of a technical objection he had given to the version of Millianism that I advocate. Fine evidently objects to my use of classical existential instantiation in an object-theoretic rendering of his meta-proof. Fine’s reply appears to involve both an egregious misreading of my criticism and a significant logical error. I argue that my rendering is unimpeachable, that the issue over my use of classical EI is a red herring, and that Fine’s original argument (...)
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  24. Is Our Universe a Mere Fluke? The Cosmological Argument and Spinning the Universes.J. van Brakel - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:75-82.
    Recent discussions about the anthropic principle and the argument from design can perhaps be summarized as follows : The world is very unusual, so it must have been made by an intelligent creator. The world is very unusual, but unusual things do occur by chance. Both and , in their ordinary interpretations, have been labelled probabilistic fallacies. In my paper I will discuss in particular the following two aspects: The contemporary relevance of Cicero's discussions on chance. The fact that any (...)
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  25. Modern Cosmology - a Cognitive Approach God?Winfried Loffler - 2009 - Philosophy and Culture 36 (8):157-171.
    From cosmology to the fact that the existence of God and nature, to address these issues, the development of two kinds of controversial contemporary line of argument, I compared and assessed in this paper: the physical cosmology as a starting argument and the natural design as a starting point of the argument. I made ​​some preliminary assessment of the court. The results showed that the Big Bang argument are quite reasonable, however, found the natural design of the demonstration clearly insufficient. (...)
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  26. Miracles; An Exercise in Logical Mapwork.Ian T. Ramsey - 1954 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 4 (16):349-350.
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  27. Robert J. Fogelin, A Defense of Hume on Miracles. [REVIEW]Dan O'brien - 2004 - Philosophy in Review 24:100-102.
  28. The Fine Art of Self-Education.Vittorino Vezzani - 1930 - Hibbert Journal 29:219.
  29. Blaise Pascal.Roger Hazelton - 1977 - Religious Studies 13 (1):111-112.
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  30. Wagering Belief: Examining Two Objections to Pascal's Wager: D. GROOTHUIS.D. Groothuis - 1994 - Religious Studies 30 (4):479-486.
    This paper concerns two objections to Pascal's wager. The first claims that Pascal's recommendation to habituate oneself to believe in God is tantamount to religious brainwashing. I argue that this construal misses important aspects of what Pascal had in mind, which may render the habituation process a legitimate means to acquire new understanding. The second objection is based on the idea that a key assumption of the wager – that theistic belief is required for eternal felicity – is morally absurd. (...)
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  31. Infinite Return: Two Ways of Wagering with Pascal: James Wetzel.James Wetzel - 1993 - Religious Studies 29 (2):139-149.
    Pascal's wager has fascinated philosophers far in excess of its reputation as effective apologetics. Very few of the wager's defenders, in fact, have retained more than an academic interest in its power to persuade. Partly this is a matter of good manners. Pascal is supposed to have pitched his wager at folks who understand only self-interested motivations, and today it is no longer fashionable for defenders of theism to disparage the character of their opponents. But partly the low-key concern with (...)
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  32. Fine Tuning and the Varieties of Naturalism: GREGORY E. GANSSLE.Gregory E. Ganssle - 2011 - Religious Studies 47 (1):59-71.
    Naturalism has been characterized both as a claim about what exists and as a commitment to a certain methodology . The fine-tuning argument for God's existence presents a significant challenge to each way of characterizing naturalism. The claim naturalist faces the fact that the best response to the fine-tuning argument requires the existence of many universes that are not clearly naturalistic themselves. Method naturalism faces the challenge that it does not have the resources to ground the preference of the many-world (...)
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  33. Is the No-Minimum Claim True? Reply to Cullison: Jeff Jordan.Jeff Jordan - 2011 - Religious Studies 47 (1):125-127.
    Is the no-minimum claim true? I have argued that it is not. Andrew Cullison contends that my argument fails, since human sentience is variable; while Michael Schrynemakers has contended that the failure is my neglect of vagueness. Both, I argue, are wrong.
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  34. Hume'S Critique of Miracles: An Irrelevant Triumph1: RICHARD L. FERN.Richard L. Fern - 1982 - Religious Studies 18 (3):337-354.
    In The Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding Hume argues that there can in principle be no good reason for believing a miracle has occurred. Recently, Richard Swinburne has disagreed, arguing that there could be good reason to believe a miracle has occurred. I will argue that both Hume and Swinburne are correct. So long as we accept Hume's notion of a miracle, his argument against the rationality of belief in such events stands firm. In this respect, Swinburne's attempted refutation fails. In (...)
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  35. Big Fine Woman From Ruleville.Jayne Cortez - 1979 - Feminist Studies 5 (3):462.
  36. Pragmatic Justification of Religious Faith.Joshua Lewis Golding - 1982 - Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    Pascal's Wager is analyzed and critiqued in Part I. The main objections to Pascal's argument are raised and various attempts to salvage the argument are discussed. These problems include the dubious assumption that one is forced to believe either that God exists or that God does not exist, and the questionable assumption that one will gain infinite happiness if and only if God exists and one believes in God's existence. Also problematic is the use of an infinite value in an (...)
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  37. Il Fine Dello Stato.Alessandro Bonucci - 1915 - Mind 24 (96):566-569.
  38. THOMAS, E. E. -The Non-Rational Character of Faith. [REVIEW]J. Laird - 1926 - Mind 35:394.
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  39. BONUCCI, ALESSANDRO. - Il Fine Dello Stato. [REVIEW]B. Bosanquet - 1915 - Mind 24:566.
  40. Probability, Explanation, and Reasoning.Roger Lewis White - 2000 - Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Three topics are discussed concerning the application probability and explanation to the confirmation of theories. The first concerns the debate over prediction versus accommodation. I argue that we typically have reason to be more confident of a theory given that it was constructed independently of the knowledge of certain data than if it was designed to accommodate those data. The second concerns the puzzle of the apparent 'fine-tuning' of the universe for life. I argue that the fact that our universe (...)
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  41. The Precautionary Principle, the Catastrophe Argument, and Pascal's Wager.Neil Manson - 1999 - Ends and Means 4 (1).
  42. Tragic Closure and the Cornelian Wager.John Lyons - 1984 - Analecta Husserliana 18:409.
  43. Pascalian Fictions Antagonism and Absent Agency in the Wager and Other Pensées. Van Kelly - 1992
  44. Pascalův Argument Sázky.Richard JureČka - 2000 - Filosoficky Casopis 48:541-556.
  45. Pascal on Certainty and Utility.John C. McCarthy - 1995 - Interpretation 22 (2):247-269.
  46. N. Rescher, "Pascal's Wager: A Study of Practical Reasoning in Philosophical Theology".C. D. Kay - 1987 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 22 (1/2):112.
  47. Le Psiche Sociale, Unita di Origine E di Fine.Enrico Ruta - 1911 - Philosophical Review 20:562.
  48. Fatto/Valore: Fine di Una Dicotomia? Risposte a Botti, Mordacci E Pollo.Paolo Zecchinato - 2006 - Etica E Politica 8 (1):1-5.
  49. La Fine Dello Spazio, L’Emergere Degli Spazi.Pierpaolo Marrone - 2001 - Etica E Politica 3 (2).
  50. Hume's Racism and His Case Against the Miraculous.Hendrik van der Breggen - 2002 - Philosophia Christi 4 (2):427-442.
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