About this topic
Summary This category concerns German philosophy in the 17th and 18th century. Though predating the period of "classical German philosophy", this is an enormously important period in the history of German thought, and one which saw the publication of the first philosophical texts in the German language. Works in this category cover, among other figures and topics, Leibniz, German Schulphilosophie, Pietistic thought, the Pantheismusstreit, Kant, and the early reception of Kant's Critical idealism. 
Key works Key works from this period (available in English translation) include Kant's first, second, and third Critiques, Mendelssohn's Morning Hours, Christian Wolff's German Metaphysics, A. G. Baumgarten's Metaphysics, and C. A. Crusius' Sketch of the Necessary Truths of Reason (translations of selections from these latter texts can be found in Watkins 2009).
Introductions The best overview of German thought in this period is Beck's magisterial  Early German Philosophy. Guyer 1992 and Guyer 2006 are useful introductions to Kant's thought in particular, and Beiser 1987 offers an engaging account of the debates and figures surrounding the Pantheismusstreit in the later 18th century.
Related
Subcategories
Immanuel Kant (34,270 | 3,762)
Kant: Metaphysics and Epistemology (11,592 | 3,120)

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  1. Geschmacksbildung. Ästhetik und Pädagogik in Johann Georg Sulzers "Gedanken über die beste Art die claßische Schriften der Alten mit der Jugend zu lesen".Roland Spalinger - 2024 - In Elisabeth Décultot & Jana Kittelmann (eds.), Gelebte Aufklärung. Basel: Schwabe Verlag. pp. 251-268.
    Als Schaltstelle von Kunstbeurteilung und ethisch-politischer Orientierung formt der Geschmack das Denken, Fühlen und Handeln von Menschen, so dass die Bildung des Geschmacks neben individuellem Wohlgefallen an Kunstwerken eben auch ethische und politische Entscheidungen festlegt. Das theoretische Fundament dieser – einerseits ideologisch durchaus anfälligen, andererseits für die Gründung einer Gesellschaft unumgänglichen – Geschmacksbildung erarbeitet Johann Georg Sulzer zugleich von der Warte der Ästhetik wie auch der Pädagogik. Anhand seiner Schrift "Gedanken über die beste Art die claßische Schriften der Alten mit (...)
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  2. Präludien.Wilhelm Windelband (ed.) - 1907 - Tübingen: Mohr Verlag.
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  3. Johann Jakob Bodmers Praktiken. Zum Zusammenhang von Ethik und Ästhetik im Zeitalter der Aufklärung.Frauke Berndt (ed.) - 2022
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  4. Reseña de Engadiner Gedanken-Gänge: Friedrich Nietzsche, der Wanderer und sein Schatten, de T. Boehm y P. Villwock, Göttingen: Wallstein, 2021, 215 pp. [REVIEW]Osman Choque-Aliaga - 2024 - Open Insight 33:173-180.
  5. The autonomy of the heart : forberg on action without belief.Kevin Harrelson - 2023 - In Katerina Mihaylova & Anna Ezekiel (eds.), Hope and the Kantian Legacy: New Contributions to the History of Optimism. London, Vereinigtes Königreich: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 125-139.
  6. Lore Knapp. Empirismus und Ästhetik: Zur deutschsprachigen Rezeption von Hume, Hutcheson, Home und Burke im 18. Jahrhundert. [REVIEW]Michael Walschots - forthcoming - Austrian History Yearbook.
  7. SYMPHILOSOPHIE 3 (2021) - Science and Early German Romanticism.Laure Cahen-Maurel, Leif Weatherby, Giulia Valpione, David Wood, Cody Staton, Manja Kisner, Gesa Wellmann & Marie-Michèle Blondin (eds.) - 2021 - SYMPHILOSOPHIE: International Journal of Philosophical Romanticism.
    This third 2021 issue of "SYMPHILOSOPHIE: International Journal of Philosophical Romanticism" contains a main dossier of new research articles guest edited by Leif Weatherby (New York University) and devoted to the topic of early German romanticism and science. In addition to the papers of this main section issue number 3 of SYMPHILOSOPHIE includes translations of primary sources and book reviews. All contents are freely available online.
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  8. Philosophical Paths: The Legacy of Hemsterhuis’ Dialogues in the Age of German Romanticism.Laure Cahen-Maurel - 2022 - In The Edinburgh Edition of the Complete Philosophical Works of François Hemsterhuis, vol. 2: The Dialogues of Francois Hemsterhuis, 1778-1787. Edinburgh:
    Introduction to: "The Edinburgh Edition of the Complete Philosophical Works of François Hemsterhuis", vol. 2: "The Dialogues of Francois Hemsterhuis, 1778-1787", edited and translated by Jacob van Sluis, Daniel Whistler (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2022), pp. 22-41.
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  9. যুক্তিবিদ্যা বিষয়ক হেগেলের সংজ্ঞা: একটি পর্যালোচনা.Kazi A. S. M. Nurul Huda - 2022 - Dorshon o Progoti 39 (1-2):67-85.
    হেগেল তাঁর “লজিক এজ মেটাফিজিক্স” নামক গ্রন্থাংশের শুরুতেই অল্প ব্যবধানে যুক্তিবিদ্যার দৃশ্যত দুটি ভিন্ন সংজ্ঞা প্রদান করেন। এ দুটি সংজ্ঞানুযায়ী, যুক্তিবিদ্যা বিশুদ্ধ ধারণার বিজ্ঞান হলেও এটিকে চিন্তার বিজ্ঞান হিসেবেও আখ্যায়িত করা যেতে পারে। কিন্তু প্রশ্ন হলো, হেগেল একই গ্রন্থাংশে অল্প ব্যবধানে যুক্তিবিদ্যার এ যে দুটি ভিন্ন সংজ্ঞা প্রদান করলেন, তার কারণ কী? বা এ দুটি সংজ্ঞার মধ্যে সম্পর্কই বা কী? তারা কি একে অপরকে সমর্থন করে? বা তারা কি আসলেই ভিন্ন দুটি সংজ্ঞা? নাকি একই বক্তব্যের দুটি ভিন্ন প্রকাশ? এ প্রশ্নগুলোর (...)
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  10. Teaching and Learning Guide for: Mind‐Body Commerce: Occasional Causation and Mental Representation in Anton Wilhelm Amo.Peter West - 2023 - Philosophy Compass.
  11. The Course of Human Development: 19th-century Comparative Linguistics from Schlegel to Schleicher.Jennifer Mensch - 2019 - International Yearbook for Hermeneutics 18 (1):140-154.
    The investigation that I am going to pursue here is part of a larger effort on my part to understand the relationship between Kant’s so-called “philosophical anthropology” and the development of early German anthropology since it is my sense that Kant had a determinate, if indirect, effect on the history of that separate field. For now this larger project has three main foci: an account of Kant’s philosophical anthropology in all its parts, an inquiry into Kant’s relationship to the theories (...)
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  12. Politics of the Turkish Republic.Mehmet Karabela - 2021 - In Islamic Thought Through Protestant Eyes. New York: Routledge. pp. 243-253.
    Michael Wendeler’s disputation on the Turkish republic is a discussion of Ottoman history, political philosophy, and the concept of monarchy and tyranny. Half of his disputation concerns the identification of the Turks with the little horn which arises on the head of the fourth beast in the prophet’s vision described in the Book of Daniel 7:1–28. Giving copious historical references, Wendeler explains that this little horn cannot be referring to Christ as the Jews believe, nor to the Seleucid monarch Antiochos (...)
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  13. Kant, Revolution, and Climate: Individual and Political Responsibility.Zachary Vereb - 2021 - Public Reason 13 (1):67-82.
    There has been a revived interest in the relevance of Kant's philosophy for contemporary global issues. This paper investigates the extent to which Kant's philosophy can provide grounds for addressing the global issue of climate change, despite his seemingly conservative defense of reform over revolution. First, I argue that Kant's account of societal progress as metamorphosis is compatible with the conception of a green revolution understood as restructuring society toward sustainability. Second, I claim that Kant's evolutionary model of political change (...)
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  14. Islamic Thought Through Protestant Eyes.Mehmet Karabela - 2021 - New York: Routledge.
    Early modern Protestant scholars closely engaged with Islamic thought in more ways than is usually recognized. Among Protestants, Lutheran scholars distinguished themselves as the most invested in the study of Islam and Muslim culture. Mehmet Karabela brings the neglected voices of post-Reformation theologians, primarily German Lutherans, into focus and reveals their rigorous engagement with Islamic thought. Inspired by a global history approach to religious thought, Islamic Thought Through Protestant Eyes offers new sources to broaden the conventional interpretation of the Reformation (...)
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  15. Kantian Objectivism and Subject-Relative Well-Being.Logan Ginther - 2022 - Dialogue 61 (3):407-419.
    When discussing well-being, subject-relative concerns are intuitively important ones. In this article, I argue that Immanuel Kant's theory of well-being can be satisfactorily subject-relative, despite his emphasis on objective moral well-being. Because the specifics of agents’ situations affect agents’ moral endowments, duties regarding moral well-being can be altered for subject-relative reasons. When it comes to thinking about the well-being of others, the important Kantian notion of respect for rational agents ensures that this will be decidedly subject-relative, too, and, what is (...)
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  16. Dignity and Credibility in the Age of Information.Joshua Duclos - 2020 - The Principal Post.
    Self-authorship is fundamental to respecting the dignity of persons, and epistemic credibility depends upon impartial review. While these claims may seem obviously true, they arguments for them are rarely given. In a supposedly "post-truth" world in which respect for individual rights is under attack, the obvious must be argued for and reiterated. To that end, I mine sources from the European Enlightenment (Bacon, Hume, Kant, and Mill) to make the case for self-authorship and impartial review.
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  17. Lambert über die Moral und den moralischen Schein.Michael Walschots - 2022 - In Hans-Peter Nowitzki, Enrico Pasini, Paola Rumore & Gideon Stiening (eds.), Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728–1777) : Wege zur Mathematisierung der Aufklärung. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 289-300.
    This chapter illustrates that Lambert’s works focus not only on mathematical and scientific topics but include reflections on issues in practical philosophy as well. I illustrate, first, that Lamber conceives of moral science [Moral] as the theory of moral judgement and, second, that an important part of this science illustrates how we are to distinguish moral truth from moral illusion.
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  18. Garve's Eudaimonism.Michael Walschots - 2021 - In Udo Roth & Gideon Stiening (eds.), Christian Garve (1742–1798): Philosoph und Philologe der Aufklärung. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 171-182.
    In this chapter I evaluate whether Garve was a ‘eudaimonist’, as Kant famously alleged he was. In the first sections of the paper I clarify that eudaimonism can mean either that happiness is the final end of creation, or that human beings are always motived by the desire for happiness, and I discuss Garve’s engagement with Aristotle’s understanding of eudaimonia. I then provide an account of Garve’s understanding of happiness and discuss his theory of motivation before arguing that Garve believes (...)
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  19. Система знания — от каталогизации к генетизации. Об историческом контексте формирования аналитически-синтетического метода у Фихте.Stahl Jürgen - 2019 - Esse Studies in Philosphy and Theology 2 (4):65 - 97.
    В развитии своего аналитико-синтетического метода Фихте восходил к диэрезису, методически отраженному со времен Платона. Если Платон несомненно указывает на историческое происхождение диэрезис, то у Фихте нет прямого указания на его концептуальную дифференциацию. Таким образом, в эссе исследуется, какие современные научные и философские проблемы привели к возобновлению и новому формированию диэрезиса. Далее показано, как Фихте развил диэрезис в особый трансцендентально-философский метод и таким образом обозначил решающий поворот в философии. Разнообразные методологические и гносеологические размышления о понимании единства и многообразия явлений природы и (...)
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  20. Perspektivwechsel: Konstruktion - Antizipation und gestaltende Fähigkeit des Subjekts. Zur Veränderung des Begriffsverständnis zwischen Aufklärung und Moderne.Stahl Jürgen - 2012 - Internet-Zeitschrift des Leibniz-Instituts Für Interdisziplinäre Studien E.V.
    Der Konstruktionsbegriff erfuhr er unter dem Eindruck technischer Fortschritte wie soziokultureller Veränderungen vor allem im 19. Jahrhundert wesentliche Wandlungen. Mit dessen selbstverständlich erscheinender Nutzung ergibt sich die Frage nach seinem Bedeutungsfeld: Ist Konstruieren ein Prozess, der sich auf das Entwerfen, die Präsentation der äußerlichen Gestalt des zu erzeugenden Gegenstandes konzentriert oder sind in ihm wesentlich mehr Aspekte impliziert? Im 17./18. Jahrhundert war Konstruktion verbunden mit dem Maschinenbegriff und vom Anspruch getragen, das geschlossene Ganze der Maschine als Objekt zu erfassen. Im (...)
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  21. Socialno-ekonomitscheskie vozzrenija J.G. Fichte kak osnova konstitutivnogo ponjatija spravedlivosti.Stahl Jürgen - 2008 - In Socialno-ekonomitscheskie vozzrenija J.G. Fichte kak osnova konstitutivnogo ponjatija spravedlivosti. In: Filosofskaja mysl i filosofija jazyka i istorii i sovremennosti. Sbornik nautschnych statej. Vostotschnyj universitet. (Perevod: M.A. Puschkarevoj. R. Ufa, Baschkortostan, Russland: pp. 5 - 24.
    В статье автор исследует, как Фихте разработал социально-политическую концепцию действия, основанную как на опыте, так и на современных идеях, в его работе «Закрытое коммерческое состояниеt». Кроме того, рассматривается, чем его социально-экономические теоремы отличаются от камеристских и феодально-консервативных рассуждений. Применительно к сегодняшнему дню идея о том, что люди являются не объектом или средством социальных отношений, а скорее их субъектом и целью, представляется особенно актуальной. С этой целью Фихте разработал концепцию справедливости, которая была конститутивной для его концепции общества: демократия, направленная на посягательство (...)
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  22. Le concezioni socioeconomiche di Johann Gottlieb Fichte come banco di prova della filosofia trascendentale.Stahl Jürgen - 1992 - Rinascita Della Scuola. Nouva Serie. Bimestrale Internazionale di Cultura, Scienza, Educazione 1 (XVI):3 - 22.
    The essay deals with the question whether Fichte’s socio-economic model which based both on the experiences and ideas of his time. Additionally, it explores how his socio-economic theorems stood out against cameralistic and feudal-conservative discussions and to what extent they can be described as an early critique of capitalism. Is the essence of Fichte’s socio-economic ideas to be seen in his model of state regulation or rather in his methodological claim of genetically developing the phenomena by showing their mediating links? (...)
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  23. Die Französische Revolution - Ursprung philosophischer Konzeptionsbildung bei Johann Gottlieb Fichte.Stahl Jürgen - 1989 - In Collegium philosophicum Jenense Nr. 8 Französische Revolution und Deutsche Klassik. Weimar, Deutschland: Hermann Böhlaus Nachfolger. pp. 189 - 205.
    Der Aufsatz analysiert Fichtes Verhältnis zu dem durch die Französische Revolution eingeleiteten Epochenumbruch und der damit verbundenen philosophischen Positionsbildung The essay analyzes Fichte's relationship to the epochal upheaval initiated by the French Revolution and the associated formation of philosophical positions. El ensayo analiza la relación de Fichte con el cambio de época iniciado por la Revolución Francesa y la formación asociada de posiciones filosóficas. В эссе анализируется отношение Фихте к эпохальным потрясениям, инициированным Французской революцией, и связанное с этим формирование философских (...)
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  24. Fichtes Beitrag zur Ausbildung einer dialektischen Naturbetrachtung.Stahl Jürgen - 1985 - In Erhard Lange (ed.), Collegium philosophicum Jenense Nr 5. Philosophie und Natur. Beiträge zur Naturphilosophie der deutschen Klassik. Weimar, Deutschland: Hermann Böhlau Nachfolger. pp. 146 -155.
    Der Artikel verfolgt, in welcher Weise Johann Gottlieb Fichte mit seiner Wissenschaftslehre die Diskussion um das Wesen der Natur in ihrem Verhältnis zum Subjekt beeinflusst. Dabei wird besonders sein Ansatz zur Fassung der Subjektivität und der Dialektisierung der Erkenntnisbeziehung zwischen Subjekt und Objekt herausgearbeitet. Dabei wird Fichtes Beitrag zur Entwicklung einer modernen dialektischen Methode gewürdigt. -/- The article follows the way in which Johann Gottlieb Fichte influences the discussion about the essence of nature in its relationship to the subject with (...)
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  25. The birth of ontology.Barry Smith - 2022 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 3 (1):57-66.
    This review focuses on the Ogdoas scholastica by Jacob Lorhard, published in 1606. The importance of this document turns on the fact that it contains what is almost certainly the first published occurrence of the term “ontology.” The body of the work consists in a series of diagrams called “diagraphs.” Relevant features of this compendium of diagraphs are: 1. that it does not in fact contain the word “ontology,” and 2. that Lorhard himself was not responsible for its content.
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  26. Philosophy of Religion in Modern European Thought 1600-1800.Brendan Kolb & Andrew Chignell - 2021 - The Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Religion.
    The early modern period (roughly, 1600–1800 ce) in Europe brought tremendous changes in intellectual, political, and cultural life. It was a period in which philosophical debates were inevitably bound up with questions about the nature and sources of religious truth. A chronological examination of some of the period’s major thinkers highlights two issues that were central to the development of philosophy of religion in the period. The first concerns the relations between God, the soul, and the body; the other concerns (...)
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  27. Conceivability Errors and the Role of Imagination in Symbolization.Lucia Oliveri - 2021 - JOLMA 2 (2):293-310.
    In the years 1675-84, Leibniz sought to disprove Descartes’s account of clear and distinct perception by implementing a three-step argumentative strategy. The first part of the paper reconstructs the argument and highlights what aspects of Descartes’s epistemology it addresses. The reconstruction shows that the argument is based on conceivability errors. These are a kind of symbolic cognition that prove Descartes’s clear and distinct perception as introspectively indistinguishable from Leibniz’s symbolic cognition. The second part of the paper explores the epistemic implication (...)
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  28. Fichtes Transzendentalphilosophie: ein urteilstheoretischer Ansatz zum Begriff des Objekts.Chiu Yui Plato Tse - 2018 - Dissertation,
    Die Arbeit behandelt Fichtes frühe Wissenschaftslehre in einer kombinierten historischen und systematischen Perspektive. Zum einen wird Fichtes Vorhaben der Wissenschaftslehre in den historischen Kontext der kantischen und nachkantischen Philosophie gestellt. Dabei spielt neben dem Werk Kants, insbesondere der Kritik der reinen Vernunft, dessen (meta-)kritische Rezeption durch K. L. Reinhold und S. Maimon eine wichtige Rolle. Zum anderen behandelt die Arbeit Fichtes frühe Wissenschaftslehre als Beitrag zu einer nicht-empirischen, „transzendentalen“ Theorie gültigen Gegenstandsbezugs. Dabei kommen grundsätzliche Überlegungen zum methodischen und doktrinalen Charakter (...)
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  29. Transcendental Idealism and the Self-Knowledge Premise.Chiu Yui Plato Tse - 2020 - Journal of Transcendental Philosophy 1 (1):19-41.
    The relation between transcendental idealism and philosophical naturalism awaits more careful determination, i. e. whether the issue of their compatibility hinges on their ontological view on the relation between physical and mental phenomena (i. e. whether it is supervenience or emergence) or on their epistemological view on our access to mental content. The aim of this paper is to identify a tension between transcendental idealism and philosophical naturalism, which lies not in their ontological view on the nature of substances, but (...)
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  30. La crítica de Hegel al formalismo de la moral kantiana: una revisión del argumento.Erika Torres - 2012 - Legein: Revista de Estudiantes de Filosofía 13:69-88.
    In his book Philosophy of Right Hegel has criticized Kant´s moral philosophy negatively, labeling it as an “empty formalism”. As a matter of fact, Kantian concepts such as good will, categorical imperative and duty are rejected by Hegel because he considers them formal, empty and unilateral. In spite of this, by means of a scrutiny of Hegel’s argument it can be thought that such a criticism is only based upon Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Moral. Therefore, Hegel has a (...)
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  31. Tetens’s Writings on Method, Language, and Anthropology.Scott Stapleford, Curtis Sommerlatte & Courtney D. Fugate (eds.) - 2022 - London, UK: Bloomsbury.
    Containing all of the key writings leading up to the publication of his Philosophical Essays in 1777, this volume presents complete works by Johann Nicolaus Tetens (1736-1807) in English for the very first time. These important essays focus on method in metaphysics and mathematics, the analysis of language, and various anthropological questions that occupied thinkers of the period. Key features of the volume include: · Accurate, readable translations · Detailed scholarly notes · A substantial introduction situating Tetens's works in historical (...)
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  32. Nostri perpetuo memor. Per la storia editoriale delle opere di Marco Aurelio Severino.Oreste Trabucco - 2019 - Noctua 6 (1–2):451-471.
    Many of Marco Aurelio Severino’s works were published in Germany, thanks to the intercession of his pupils. The prestigious Nürnberg physician Johann Georg Volkamer was Severino’s closest pupil. A relevant manuscript letter of Severino to Volkamer sheds new light on the context of the edition of Severino’s Zootomia democritaea. The correspondence between Severino and Volkamer was firstly studied by Luigi Amabile in the Ninteenth-century, and it was fully exploited by Maurizio Torrini about a century later.
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  33. How a Kantian Ideal Can Be Practical.Alexander T. Englert - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 65.
    In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant states that ideas give us the rule for organizing experience and ideals serve as archetypes or standards against which one can measure copies. Further, he states that ideas and ideals can be practical. Understanding how precisely these concepts should function presents a challenging and understudied philosophical puzzle. I offer a reconstruction of how ideas and ideals might be practical in order to uphold, to my mind, a conceptually worthy distinction. A practical idea, I (...)
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  34. On Some Presumed Gaps in Kant's Refutation of Idealism.Jacqueline Marina - 2004 - In Udo Rameil (ed.), Metaphysik Und Kritik. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 153-166.
    Kant’s aim in the Refutation of Idealism is to show that the temporal determination of inner experience presupposes outer experience. Commentators have rightly noted the extraordinarily compressed character of Kant's argument, and numerous gaps in the argument have been pointed out. In this paper I focus on two of these gaps and provide a reconstruction of Kant's argument that closes them.
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  35. Träume eines Geistersehers, erläutert durch Träume der Metaphysik (transl. in Greek, Ekkremes Publishings, Athens, 2020).Stelios Gadris - 2020 - Athens, Greece: Ekkremes.
    Greek translation of Immanuel Kant's 1766 short treatise: Träume eines Geistersehers, erläutert durch Träume der Metaphysik.
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  36. Goethe, Maimon, and Spinoza's Third Kind of Cognition.Jason Yonover - 2018 - Goethe Yearbook 1 (25).
    The relationship between Goethe and Salomon Maimon has only been touched on once in the literature, and further clarification of the link between them remains a desideratum. Below I propose that the way to grasp their seeing eye to eye is through Spinoza, and specifically Spinoza's notion of scientia intuitiva. Initially I provide some context in order to illustrate what makes Maimon's role here rather unique. Then I sketch the relationship Maimon and Goethe had both to Spinoza and each other (...)
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  37. Theoretical virtues in eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition.Hein van den Berg - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (3):1-35.
    Within eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition we can distinguish at least three main theoretical positions: (i) Buffon’s mechanism, (ii) Reimarus’ theory of instincts, and (iii) the sensationalism of Condillac and Leroy. In this paper, I adopt a philosophical perspective on this debate and argue that in order to fully understand the justification Buffon, Reimarus, Condillac, and Leroy gave for their respective theories, we must pay special attention to the theoretical virtues these naturalists alluded to while justifying their position. These theoretical (...)
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  38. Kant’s Account of Sensible Concepts in the Inaugural Dissertation and the Critique of Pure Reason.Karin de Boer - 2018 - In Violetta L. Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit. Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. De Gruyter. pp. 1015-1022.
    The present paper aims to trace back Kant’s account of the schematism of the pure understanding in the Critique of Pure Reason to the Dissertation. I do so by discussing Kant’s understanding of sensible cognition in view of his assessment of metaphysics. I argue, first, that Kant in both texts aims to defend metaphysics against skeptical attacks by discarding those of its elements he considers unwarranted and, second, that this undertaking hinges on his account of concepts that function as the (...)
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  39. Mechanical Philosophy: Reductionism and Foundationalism.Tzuchien Tho - 2020 - Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences.
  40. Kritische oder genetische Methode (1883).Wilhelm Windelband - 1907 - In Präludien. Tübingen: Mohr Verlag. pp. 318-354.
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  41. Metaphysics, in three books: Ontology, Cosmology, and Psychology. Trans. by Bosanquet.Hermann Lotze - 1887 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  42. Sapienti os in corde, stulto cor in ore esse – Johann Gottlieb Heineccius on natural duties concerning free thought and free speech.Katerina Mihaylova - forthcoming - In Frank Grunert & Knud Haakonssen (eds.), Love as the Principle of Natural Law. The Natural Law Theory of Johann Gottlieb Heineccius and its Contexts. Leiden, Niederlande:
    In his "Elementa Iuris Naturae et Gentium" Johann Gottlieb Heineccius presents a unique account of love as the principle of natural law, referring to the main concern of early modern protestant theories of natural law: the importance of securing subjective rights by a law. Heineccius accepts the universal character of subjective rights derived from human nature, claiming their protection as natural duties required by a law. This chapter provides an attempt to explain the specific ways in which Heineccius deals with (...)
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  43. The Emergence of Modern Dialectic.Mehmet Karabela - 2013 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 8.
  44. Reinhold and Fichte in Confrontation: A Tale of Mutual Appreciation and Criticism.Martin Bondeli & Silvan Imhof (eds.) - 2020 - De Gruyter.
    From the early 1790s until after the turn of the century, a very productive but also controversial exchange took place between Reinhold and Fichte. Though many key aspects of post-Kantian philosophy were discussed, the philosophical confrontation between Reinhold and Fichte is most instructive for the understanding of post-Kantian philosophy. The exchange started when Fichte published his verdict on Reinhold's Elementarphilosophie and disapproved of its fundamental principle. In 1794 Fichte challenged Reinhold by presenting his Wissenschaftslehre. Reinhold was not convinced of Fichte's (...)
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  45. Vielfalt-Individualität-Gesetz: Wilhelm von Humboldts politische Theorie.Roberta Pasquarè - 2009 - SOLon-Line.
    Der Kerngedanke der politischen Theorie des Wilhelm von Humboldt ist äußerst schlicht und übersichtlich: In seinen "Ideen zu einem Versuch, die Gränzen der Wirksamkeit des Staats zu bestimmen" heißt es, dass die Funktion des Staats auf die Erhaltung der inneren und auswärtigen Sicherheit beschränkt werden soll. Diese Staatsauffassung findet ihre Begründung in einer Anthropologie, die dem Menschen das Recht und zugleich die Aufgabe zuweist, durch das spontane Zusammenwirken mit den anderen seine Potenzialitäten zur Entfaltung zu bringen. Schlicht und übersichtlich wie (...)
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  46. L'individuo, lo Stato, la storia: il progresso nel pensiero politico di Wilhelm von Humboldt.Roberta Pasquarè - 2007 - Rivista Della Scuola Superiore Dell'economia E Delle Finanze.
    This article was originally published in January 2007 on the online version of the journal “Rivista della scuola superiore dell'economia e delle finanze”. Since the journal’s webpage does not exist anymore, I have uploaded a PDF of the article as it was published in January 2007. In questo articolo esamino l'idea humboldtiana di progresso. Più precisamente, ricostruisco come Wilhelm von Humboldt teorizzi il progresso del singolo individuo, del cittadino e del genere umano. Secondo la mia ricostruzione, l’idea humboldtiana di progresso (...)
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  47. Vernunft und Vertrag. Die konservative Wende des Wilhelm von Humboldt.Roberta Pasquare - 2012 - Würzburg, Deutschland: Königshausen & Neumann.
    Im politischen Denken des Wilhelm von Humboldt findet eine konservative Wende statt: Von den radikalen Freiheitsansprüchen der Frühschriften bleibt in den Denkschriften des späten Staatsmannes kaum noch etwas erhalten. In diesem Band wird Humboldts konservative Wende textimmanent freigelegt, historisch situiert und systematisch ergründet. Insbesondere wird Humboldts Konservatismus auf seine zunehmende Angst vor der Demokratie zurückgeführt, was nach seinem Verständnis das schädliche Ergebnis der neuzeitlichen Vernunftrechts- und Vertragslehre darstellt. Aus diesem Grund wird Humboldts konservative Wende letzthin durch seine bereits in der (...)
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  48. Logikdiagramme und Logikmaschinen aus der Zittauer Schule um Christian Weise.Jens Lemanski - 2019 - Neues Lausitzische Magazin 141 (1):39-57.
    A particularly promising trail on the search for forgotten logic diagrams leads to Upper Lusatia in the 17th century, more precisely to Christian Weise and his students. Samuel Grosser, who later became rector in Görlitz, and Johann Christian Lange, who later became professor of logic at the University of Gießen, are the most prominent to have published remarkable logic diagrams. Even more remarkable, however, is the fact that Lange's interest in these diagrams ultimately gave rise to the idea of building (...)
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  49. 230 Jahre Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?Carina Pape & Holger Sederström - 2018 - Hannover, Deutschland: Wehrhahn.
    Die Aufklärung wurde als historische Denkbewegung oft kritisiert, ihre (vermeintliche) Dialektik aufgedeckt und die Kluft zwischen ihren ursprünglichen Zielen und ihren Konsequenzen angesichts der Kriege und Krisen des 20. Jahrhunderts beschrieben. Trotz dieser Kritik sind Begriff und Epoche der Aufklärung nach wie vor von großer gesellschaftlicher Bedeutung. Grundforderungen der Aufklärung wie Freiheit, Öffentlichkeit, überprüfbares Wissen, Mündigkeit, Emanzipation und Selbstreflexion stellen eine fortwährende Herausforderung dar. Noch heute liefert sie Impulse für demokratische Bewegungen. Und auch (wissenschafts-)didaktisch erscheint sie zeitlos: Moderne Begriffe wie (...)
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  50. 'All Is Leaf'. Goethe's Plant Philosophy and Poetry.Ina Goy - 2019 - In Cécilia Bognon-Küss & Charles T. Wolfe (eds.), Philosophy of Biology Before Biology. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 146-169.
    In "The Metamorphosis of Plants" (1790) and the related didactic poem (1798) Goethe describes the generation and development of plants as six metamorphoses of the primal plant and its organ, the leaf. In a first step, I will try to analyze the nature of the primal plant and its organ, the leaf. Is the primal plant and its organ, the leaf, an idea or does it consist in matter? If it is an idea, is it the idea of all plants (...)
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