About this topic
Summary This category concerns German philosophy in the 17th and 18th century. Though predating the period of "classical German philosophy", this is an enormously important period in the history of German thought, and one which saw the publication of the first philosophical texts in the German language. Works in this category cover, among other figures and topics, Leibniz, German Schulphilosophie, Pietistic thought, the Pantheismusstreit, Kant, and the early reception of Kant's Critical idealism. 
Key works Key works from this period (available in English translation) include Kant's first, second, and third Critiques, Mendelssohn's Morning Hours, Christian Wolff's German Metaphysics, A. G. Baumgarten's Metaphysics, and C. A. Crusius' Sketch of the Necessary Truths of Reason (translations of selections from these latter texts can be found in Watkins 2009).
Introductions The best overview of German thought in this period is Beck's magisterial  Early German Philosophy. Guyer 1992 and Guyer 2006 are useful introductions to Kant's thought in particular, and Beiser 1987 offers an engaging account of the debates and figures surrounding the Pantheismusstreit in the later 18th century.
Related categories
Subcategories:
Immanuel Kant (30,181 | 8,675)
Kant: Metaphysics and Epistemology (8,695 | 3,323)

43114 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 43114
Alexander Baumgarten
  1. The Foundation of Hermeneutics as a Work of Art-The Relation Between Metaphysical and Aesthetical Truth in Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten.A. Aichele - 1999 - Studia Leibnitiana 31 (1):82-90.
  2. Enthymematik und Wahrscheinlichkeit. Die epistemologische Rechtfertigung singulärer Urteile in Universaljurisprudenz und Logik der deutschen Aufklärung: Christian Wolff und Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten.Alexander Aichele - 2011 - Rechtstheorie 42 (4):495-513.
  3. Full Competency or Restriction? Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten's Critique of Christian Wolff's Concept of Philosophy.Alexander Aichele - 2010 - Studia Leibnitiana 42 (2):162-185.
  4. Die Ungewißheit des Gewissens. Alexander Gottlieb Baumgartens forensische Aufklärung der Aufklärungsethik.Alexander Aichele - 2005 - Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik 13.
    Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten grenzt sich in seinem Ius Naturae, das einen knappen Kommentar zu den Exercitationes Iuris Naturalis Heinrich Köhlers darstellt, nach über zwanzigjähriger Auseinandersetzung mit dieser Vorlage entschieden von einer der zentralen Thesen Köhlers ab. Baumgarten löst nämlich dessen Identifikation der Stimmen der Vernunft, des Gewissens, der Natur und Gottes in der Moral auf und zeigt, daß im Gegenteil göttlicher und irdischer Bereich vollständig disjunkt sind.Dies folgt aus der Einsicht in die prinzipielle Ungewißheit eines jeden möglichen moralischen Urteils, das (...)
  5. Sive vox naturae sive vox rationis sive vos Dei? Die metaphysische Begründung des Naturrechtsprinzips bei Heinrich Köhler, mit einer abschließenden Bemerkung zu Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten.Alexander Aichele - 2004 - Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik 12.
    Der Jenenser Philosoph Heinrich Köhler versucht in seinen Exercitationes Juris Naturalis, eiusque cumprimis cogentis, methodo systematica propositi eine rationalistische Begründung des Naturrechts auf der Basis der Metaphysik von Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Die Rekonstruktion dieser metaphysischen Begründung, die mit dem Aufweiß der Erkennbarkeit des obersten Prinzips des Naturrechts rein aus der Vernunft zusammenfällt, ist Gegenstand der vorliegenden Studie. Ausgehend von der Identifikation jenes Erkenntnisgrundes mit der Natur des Menschen zeigt sich vermittels einer Analyse der von Köhler in Anschlag gebrachten Methode, daß (...)
  6. Die Grundlegung einer Hermeneutik des Kunstwerks. Zum Verhältnis von metaphysischer und ästhetischer Wahrheit bei Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten.Alexander Aichele - 1991 - Studia Leibnitiana 31 (1):82-90.
    A. G. Baumgarten's foundation of aesthetics as a branch of philosophical reflection is itself deeply rooted in Leibnizian metaphysics. From this starting-point Baumgarten comes to a kind of monadological concept of the work of art, that gets now an inexhaustible and thruthrepresenting meaning. This truth of the work of art however cannot be recognized rationally, for it is impossible for human beings to be aware of a beautiful object's 'metaphysical truth', which can only be perceived by the senses as - (...)
  7. Baumgarten's Reflections on Poetry.K. Aschenbrenner & W. B. Holther - 1955 - Philosophy 30 (114):285-285.
  8. Rationalism and Perfectionism.Stefano Bacin - 2017 - In Sacha Golob & Jens Timmermann (eds.), The Cambridge History of Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 379-393.
    The chapter provides a brief survey of the moral views of some of the main writers advocating rationalist conceptions in philosophical ethics in Eighteenth-Century Britain and Germany, prior to Reid and Kant: Samuel Clarke, William Wollaston, John Balguy, Richard Price, Christian Wolff (along with his adversary Christian August Crusius), Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten.
  9. Alexander Baumgarten: Metaphysics (1739). Baumgarten - 2009 - In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Background Source Materials. Cambridge University Press.
  10. Texte Zur Grundlegung der Ästhetik.Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten - 2013 - Felix Meiner Verlag.
    Die in diesem Band vereinten Texte , lassen die Einbettung der Baumgartenschen Ästhetik als der Lehre vom sinnlichen Erkennen in seine metaphysische Gesamtkonzeption deutlich werden. Die dem lateinischen Text beigegebene Übersetzung ist besonders wertvoll, weil Baumgartens kompakte und eigenwillige lateinische Ausdrucksweise auch dem Kenner vielfach Schwierigkeiten bereitet.
  11. Ästhetik.Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten - 2009 - Felix Meiner Verlag.
    Mit seiner 'Aesthetica' hat Baumgarten die gleichnamige philosophische Disziplin begründet. Der umfangreiche, in zwei Teilen erschienene Text liegt nun erstmals in einer vollständigen deutschen Übersetzung vor.
  12. Ästhetik I.Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten - 2007 - Felix Meiner Verlag.
    Mit seiner 'Aesthetica' hat Baumgarten die gleichnamige philosophische Disziplin begründet. Der umfangreiche, in zwei Teilen erschienene Text liegt nun erstmals in einer vollständigen deutschen Übersetzung vor.
  13. Reflections on Poetry Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten's Meditationes Philosophicae de Nonnullis Ad Poema Pertinentibus.Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten - 1954 - University of California Press.
  14. Reflections on Poetry.Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten - 1735 - Berkeley: University of California Press.
  15. Reflections on Poetry: Mediationes Philosophicae de Nonnullis Ad Poema Pertinentibus.Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, Karl Aschenbrenner & William B. Holther - 1961 - Journal of Philosophy 58 (24):783-783.
  16. Metaphysica Alexandri Gottlieb Baumgarten.Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten & Karl Hermann Hemmerde - 1757 - Impensis Carol. Herman. Hemmerde.
  17. Philosophische Betrachtungen über einige Bedingungen des Gedichts.Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, Heinz Paetzold, A. G. Baumgarten, Hans Rudolf Schweizer & H. R. Schweizer - 1983 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 38 (4):687-690.
  18. L'esthétique de l'analogon rationis: une introduction à la philosophie d'Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten.Gilda Bouchat - 2007 - Revue de Théologie Et de Philosophie 139 (1):1-20.
    Les multiples histoires des idées qui retracent la constitution, relativement récente, de la discipline appelée «esthétique», mentionnent souvent le nom d�Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (1714-1762) en lui attribuant l�«invention» du néologisme «æsthetica». Très rapidement, ce terme latin, traduit en allemand, entre dans l�usage courant. De nos jours, il désigne un ensemble de discours souvent très hétérogènes sur les beaux-arts. Mais le sens originaire d�æsthetica, c�est-à-dire le contenu de l�ouvrage éponyme de 1750, demeure largement méconnu. Le présent article souhaite contribuer à souligner (...)
  19. The Founding of Aesthetics in the German Enlightenment: The Art of Invention and the Invention of Art.Stefanie Buchenau - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    When, in 1735, Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten added a new discipline to the philosophical system, he not only founded modern aesthetics but also contributed to shaping the modern concept of art or 'fine art'. In The Founding of Aesthetics in the German Enlightenment, Stefanie Buchenau offers a rich analysis and reconstruction of the origins of this new discipline in its wider context of German Enlightenment philosophy. Present-day scholars commonly regard Baumgarten's views as an imperfect prefiguration of Kantian and post-Kantian aesthetics, but (...)
  20. Baumgarten and Kant on Rational Theology: Deism, Theism, and the Role of Analogy.Brian Chance & Lawrence Pasternack - forthcoming - In Courtney Fugate (ed.), Kant's Lectures of Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press.
    In both his published works and lecture notes Kant distinguishes between Transcendental and Natural Theology, associating the former with Deism and the latter with Theism. The purpose of this paper is to explore these distinctions, particularly as they are shaped by Kant’s engagement with Baumgarten’s Philosophical Theology.
  21. Ciencia Del Conocimiento Sensible: Principios Racionalistas En la Estética de Alexander Baumgarten.Pablo Chiuminatto - 2014 - Revista de filosofía (Chile) 70:61-73.
    A mediados del siglo XVIII, A. Baumgarten estableció una “ciencia del conocimiento sensible ” o estética. Su propuesta ampliaba el legado de Leibniz y Wolff, profundizaba la noción de experiencia y asumía el esquema tradicional de la Idea que Leibniz criticó a Descartes, pero considerando la acepción de ideas “simbólicas”. No obstante su relevancia, la propuesta de Baumgarten no siempre es considerada para comprender la teoría del arte, que aparece como una vía menos relevante frente a la revolución kantiana de (...)
  22. Ciencia del conocimiento sensible: principios racionalistas en la doctrina estética de Alexander Baumgarten.Pablo Chiuminatto - 2014 - Revista de filosofía (Chile) 70:61-73.
  23. Kant e i moralisti tedeschi. Wolff, Baumgarten, Crusius.Susanna Del Boca - 1937 - L. Loffredo.
  24. Between Wolffianism and Pietism: Baumgarten's Rational Psychology.Corey W. Dyck - forthcoming - In Courtney Fugate & John Hymers (eds.), Baumgarten and Kant on Metaphysics. Oxford University Press.
    In this paper, I consider Baumgarten’s views on the soul in the context of the Pietist critique of Wolff’s rational psychology. My primary aim is to account for the largely unacknowledged differences between Wolff’s and Baumgarten’s rational psychology, though I also hope to show that, in some cases, the Pietists were rather more perceptive in their reading of Wolff than they are typically given credit for as their criticisms frequently succeed in drawing attention to significant omissions in Wolff’s discussion.
  25. Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, Ästhetik. [REVIEW]Armin Emmel - 2009 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 63 (2).
  26. Kunst Als Erkenntnis: Die Rolle D. Sinnlichkeit in D. Ästhetik D. Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten.Ursula Franke - 1972 - Steiner.
  27. Alexander Baumgarten on the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Courtney D. Fugate - 2014 - Philosophica -- Revista Do Departamento de Filosofia da Faculdade de Letras de Lisboa 44.
    This paper defends the Principle of Sufficient Reason, taking Baumgarten as its guide. The primary aim is not to vindicate the principle, but rather to explore the kinds of resources Baumgarten originally thought sufficient to justify the PSR against its early opponents. The paper also considers Baumgarten's possible responses to Kant's pre-Critical objections to the proof of the PSR. The paper finds that Baumgarten possesses reasonable responses to all these objections. While the paper notes that in the absence of a (...)
  28. Metaphysics: A Critical Translation with Kant's Elucidations, Selected Notes, and Related Materials.Courtney Fugate, John Hymers & Alexander Baumgarten - 2013 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Available for the first time in English, this critical translation draws from the original seven Latin editions and Georg Friedrich Meier's 18th-century German translation. Together with a historical and philosophical introduction, extensive glossaries and notes, the text is supported by translations of Kant's elucidations and notes, Eberhard's insertions in the 1783 German edition and texts from the writings of Meier and Wolff. For scholars of Kant, the German Enlightenment and the history of metaphysics, Alexander Baumgarten's Metaphysics is an essential, authoritative (...)
  29. BAUMGARTEN, Alexander Gottlieb, Esthétique : précédée des Méditations philosophiques sur quelques sujets se rapportant à l'essence du poème et de la métaphysique (...501 à 623) BAUMGARTEN, Alexander Gottlieb, Esthétique : précédée des Méditations philosophiques sur quelques sujets se rapportant à l'essence du poème et de la métaphysique (...501 à 623). [REVIEW]Jean Grondin - 1989 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 45 (1):157-158.
  30. Felix Æstheticus. Die Ästhetik als Lehre vom Menschen Zum 250. Jahrestag des Erscheinens von Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten « Æsthetica ».Steffen W. Gross - 2002 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 192 (4):469-469.
  31. The Neglected Programme of Aesthetics.Steffen W. Gross - 2002 - British Journal of Aesthetics 42 (4):403-414.
    Aesthetics is today widely seen as the philosophy of art and/or beauty, limited to artworks and their perception. In this paper, I will argue that today's aesthetics and the original programme developed by the German Enlightenment thinker Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten in the first half of the eighteenth century have only the name in common. Baumgarten did not primarily develop his aesthetics as a philosophy of art. The making and understanding of artworks had served in his original programme only as an (...)
  32. The Emergence of Modern Aesthetic Theory: Religion and Morality in Enlightenment Germany and Scotland.Simon Grote - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    Broad in its geographic scope and yet grounded in original archival research, this book situates the inception of modern aesthetic theory – the philosophical analysis of art and beauty - in theological contexts that are crucial to explaining why it arose. Simon Grote presents seminal aesthetic theories of the German and Scottish Enlightenments as outgrowths of a quintessentially Enlightenment project: the search for a natural 'foundation of morality' and a means of helping naturally self-interested human beings transcend their own self-interest. (...)
  33. Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten: Metaphysica = Metaphysik. Historisch-kritische Ausgabe, übers., eingel. und hrsg. von Günter Gawlick und Lothar Kreimendahl. [REVIEW]Alexander Gunkel - 2015 - Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 68 (2):108-117.
  34. Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb.Paul Guyer - 1998 - In Michael Kelly (ed.), Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. Oxford University Press. pp. 1--227.
  35. Wie die Morgenröthe zwischen Nacht und Tag. Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten und d..Anselm Haverkamp - 2002 - Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwissenschaft Und Geistesgeschichte 76 (1):3-26.
  36. Rethinking Rational Cosmology: Research on the Pre-Critical Origins of Kant's Arguments in the Antinomies.Matthew Raymond Hettche - 2002 - Dissertation, Purdue University
    Anglo-American commentators of Kant are largely skeptical that the Antinomies of the first Critique accomplish their intended objective. Against Kant's claim that there are "natural and unavoidable" questions about the structure of the universe, the nature of causality, and the existence of God, which inevitably lead human reason to paradox and contradiction, critics deny that the Antinomies are inevitable problems of reason. Typical objections levied against Kant are that the Antinomies are artificially generated from Kant's architectonic view of human reason (...)
  37. Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten: Ästhetik.Tomáš Hlobil - 2009 - Estetika 46 (1):105-110.
    A review of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten‘s Ästhetik. Latin-German edition. Trans., preface, notes, indexes by Dagmar Mirbach. 2 vols (vol. 1, pp. LXXX, 1--595; vol. 2, pp. IX, 596--1305). Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 2007, ISBN 3787317732. This is the first complete German translation of the two volumes of Baumgarten’s Aesthetics from 1750 and 1758.
  38. Book Review: Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten: Ästhetik. [REVIEW]Tomáš Hlobil - 2009 - Estetika:105-110.
  39. Die Ästhetik Als Antwort Auf Das Kopernikanische Weltbild Die Beziehungen Zwischen den Naturwissenschaften Und der Ästhetik Alexander Gottlieb Baumgartens Und Georg Friedrich Meiers.Michael Jäger & Georg F. Meier - 1984
  40. Der Begriff der Welt bei Wolff, Baumgarten, Crusius und Kant : eine Untersuchung zur Vorgeschichte von Kants Weltbegriff von 1770.Chang Won Kim - 2004 - Peter Lang.
    Richard Kroner hat 1921 sein bekanntes Werk Von Kant bis Hegel veröffentlicht. Das Gegenstück dazu, eine Darstellung unter dem Titel Von Wolff bis Kant, ist dagegen leider bis heute ein Desiderat der Forschung geblieben. Zumindest für einen wichtigen Teilaspekt, die Geschichte des Weltbegriffs, die schließlich in Kants Antinomienlehre kulminiert, leistet diese Arbeit eine bedeutsame Vorarbeit. Zugleich werden am Leitfaden dieses Schlüsselproblems aber auch Grundlinien der Gesamtentwicklung von Wolff bis Kant zumindest in Umrissen sichtbar.
  41. Vom Ich zur Welt: Formen der Weltbeziehung in Kants Anthropologie.Riccardo Martinelli - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 413-424.
    This essay focuses on the relation between man and the world in Kant’s anthropology. Within Baumgarten’s Metaphysica, used as a manual by Kant for his lessons, empirical psychology is situated between cosmology and rational psychology. However, this view is untenable for Kant, at least after the first Critique. Consequently, whereas Baumgarten explains, for instance, obscure ideas referring to the bodily position in the world, Kant’s pragmatic approach excludes this. Yet, the concept of «Welt» retains paramount importance within Kant’s Anthropology. The (...)
  42. Clear and Distinct Ideas in Eighteenth Century Germany: Metaphysics, Logic, Aesthetics.Colin McQuillan - 2017 - In Manuel Sánchez-Rodríguez & Miguel Escribano (eds.), Leibniz en Dialogo. Seville: Themata.
  43. Early Modern Aesthetics.J. Colin McQuillan - 2015 - Rowman & Littlefield International.
    A clear and concise account of the relationship between aesthetics and philosophy in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and the development of aesthetics as a discipline in its own right.
  44. Kant's Critique of Baumgarten's Aesthetics.J. Colin McQuillan - 2015 - Idealistic Studies 45 (1).
    This article considers three objections Immanuel Kant raises against Alexander Baumgarten’s plan for a science of aesthetics at different points in his career. Although Kant’s objections appear to be contradictory, this article argues that the contradiction is the result of an anachronism in the composition of Kant’s Logic. When the contradiction is resolved, it becomes apparent that Kant’s main reason for rejecting Baumgarten’s aesthetics during the pre-critical period—the lack of a priori principles for a critique of taste—loses its force after (...)
  45. Baumgarten on Sensible Perfection.J. Colin McQuillan - 2014 - Philosophica -- Revista Do Departamento de Filosofia da Faculdade de Letras de Lisboa 44.
    One of the most important concepts Baumgarten introduces in his Reflections on Poetry is the concept of sensible perfection. It is surprising that Baumgarten does not elaborate upon this concept in his Metaphysics, since it plays such an important role in the new science of aesthetics that he proposes at the end of the Reflections on Poetry and then further develops in the Aesthetics. This article considers the significance of the absence of sensible perfection from the Metaphysics and its implications (...)
  46. Schwerpunkt: Zur Aktualitat der Asthetik von Alexander G. Baumgarten.Christoph Menke - 2001 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 49 (2):229-232.
  47. Ancient or Modern? Alexander G. Baumgarten and the Coming of Age of Aesthetics.Alessandro Nannini - 2015 - Filozofija I Društvo 26 (3):629-651.
1 — 50 / 43114